Skip to main content

Full text of "The Telegrapher [microform]"

See other formats


■ ■ 



HH»i 



:..'.!■.■•■■■■''■ 



■■! y 



■ 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE 

OF TECHNOLOGY 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in.2013 



http://archive.org/details/telegrapher13nati 



Jan. 6, 181T.1 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



The Telegrapher 

■ft JOURNAL OF 

ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 











J. N. 


AoHLtT, - - - 






SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 6, 1871. 




VOL 


. XIII. 


WHOLE No. 


547 



The G. B. C. 

A Tale of a Telegram, Told by a Sufferer. 
By James Payne. 

I do not as a rule engage in commercial speculation, 
but my dear friend Jones insisted with such eloquence 
upon the success that must indubitably follow upon the 
establishment of the Great Butter Company— an associa- 
tion formed for the manufacture of that commodity out 
of a material which shall be nameless, but which was by 
no means so precarious and open to adulteration as 
cream, and the supply of which was practicably inex- 
haustible — that I suffered the name of Martingale to ap- 
pear, for a consideration, on the list of directors. 

It is a name well known in society, and was up to that 
time untainted by connection with trade, unless, indeed, 
the swapping and sale of chargers — for which I will back 
myself against any cavalry officer in her Majesty's ser- 
vice — may be considered by the pedantic as coming un- 
der that head. As for the city, I knew nothing more about 
it than that it was a locality lying east of Cox's, the 
army agent's, which was the limit of my personal expe- 
rience in that direction. I have always breathed quite 
another atmosphere — that of Pall Mall; I wish I could 
say a purer one ; but the fact is that the atmosphere of 
the smoking rooms, both at the Rag and at the Junior, 
are towards the small hours of the morning, when my own 
day is by no means finished, something appalling. I had 
three hundred a year for directing the Butter Company, 
and it was far easier work, I am bound to say, than 
were the old duties in my regiment, for which I was paid 
a precisely similar sum. Once a month the chairman 
called for me in his brougham, and deposited me at the 
offices in Cornhill, where, after an excellent luncheon (of 
which our butter formed no ingredient), I attached my 
autograph to certain documents, a proceeding which is, I 
believe, technically termed passing the accounts. There 
were some persons of my acquaintance and profession — 
persons, I have reason to believe who had themselves ap- 
plied tor directorships and failed — who did not scruple 
to call the Great Butter Company a slippery concern, and 
who affected to give me friendly counsel to get out of 
it ; but I was too well accustomed to the system of mili- 
tary ^exchanges not to perceive their drift — their object 
was, of course, to be gazetted in my stead. 1 listened to 
their jokes about "Martingale, the man of business," 
every time 1 returned from an expedition to Cornhill, 
with even more than my usual good nature, for I had 
twenty -rive golden reasons in my pocket — the directors 
were paid monthly — tor sticking to the Butter. And 1 
believe the Butter would have stuck to me had it not 
been for my own fault — if I can call that a fault which 
was the most extraordinary piece of ill-fortune that ever 
befell a fellow, and solely through another fellow's being 
too clever by half. 

■ Well, I say the.G. B. C. — as we who belonged to it were 
accustomed to call it, as the Chairman said, " out of 
affection and euphony," but so far as I was concerned, 
for mere shortness — was a little talked about. It had 
its detractors, and even its enemies. Some people shook 
their heaus at it (especially when they tasted the butter), 
and prophesied we should not last ; and it was necessary 
to advertise considerably to get new customers. Our 
business lay rather with new ones than old ones, per- 
haps ; but it was gradually getting spread over the 
country — though thinly spread, like butter upon bread at 
school. So long as we were harmonious among ourselves, 
said the Chairman, or, at all eveuts, washed our dirty 
linen at home — did not attack one another in the papers, 
as so many boards of directors arc wont to — we should 
be all right; but if once there should be mistrust of one 
another, ho would not answer for the consequences. 
" Let only the Great Butter Company be true to itself," 
said he, during the peroration of the most powerful speech 
I ever remember to have heard from any mau sitting, 
" and I do not hesitate to affirm that the uays of dairy- 
men are numbered." i'or though I am still under an 
obligation of secrecy as to the material of which our but- 
ter was composed, 1 may say it had nothing in common 
with dairies — except a little water. Enough, however, 
of commercial details. 

When playing at pool in the early autumu one night 
at the club, I had the misfortune to lose — neither my 
money nor my life, for I am amazingly careful of both, 



but — my self-possession, and somehow or other got in- 
veigled Into a promise to go down to old Slowcombe s 
to shoot upon the first of October. It was a foolish thing 
to do, for Slowcombe is a bore, and I happened to owe 
him a little money ; and when a mau is both a bore and a 
creditor, it is intolerable to be under the same roof with 
him, more especially if it be his own. There were some 
excuses for me, for, in the first place, there were so few 
men in town that we were obliged to ask Slowcombe to 
make up the pool, and secondly, when one owes a fel- 
low money, one is bound to be civil to him. We got 
talking of pheasants, and the old fellow asked me if I 
liked pheasant shooting, and when I said yes, " Then 
come, said he, " and have a shy at mine." I no more 
suspected Slowcombe of having pheasant shooting to give 
away than of keeping a roulette table at Hampton Court 
races ; he was a stodgy, pursy, plethoric old fellow, who 
had been in the yeomanry for a day or two (just to get a 
qualification for the Club), and had then rested on his 
laurels. Still, when a man farms his own land, there is 
always a temptation to get something out of it, and it 
seemed he had grown pheasants. I ought to have been 
more prudent, and will another time, or my name is not 
Martingale. 

I am, however, a man of my word, and I never 
thought of breaking my promise to Slowcombe, until I 
heard him ask another man, and then another, to come 
down and enjoy themselves among his covers, and both 
of them refused point blank. They did not owe him 
money as I did ; but it struck me that they were more 
decided in their negatives than the occasion demanded. 

"Why don't you go down to poor old Slowcombe's ?" 
said I to one of them, a man I should have liked as a 
companion in such an expedition; "he means well and 
is quite harmless." 

" Harmless 1 By Jove! that is just what he isn't," 
was the unexpected reply. " Why, last year was the 
first, according to his own confession, that he ever took 
gun in hand, and he shot Brooks of Ours in the leg at 
fifteen yards in one of his own turnip fields. You don't 
mean to say you never heard Brooks tell the story about 
his leg, and how Slowcombe made game of it?" 

I did not like to say that I myself had promised to go 
down to Slowcombe's, but I made up my mind from that 
moment that I wouldn't go. I am not a family man, but 
respect myself, I hope, as much as if I was ; and I wasn't 
going to be blown to pieces by an old rhinoceros like 
that, in a field of Swedes. My difficulty was to find an 
excuse; for the other men's refusals, and his own know- 
ledge perhaps of why they wouldn't come, had made 
Slowcombe touchy, and when I had hinted that I couldn't 
be quite sure of being with him on the first, he had made 
an allusion to the little matter of business between us, 
which I felt to be equivalent to play or pay — come to 
Ploughshire (for he lived among the clodhoppers) or set- 
tle my account. 

At last I hit upon a plan. He knew that I was con- 
nected with the Great Butter Company, and had often 
sounded me as to its prospects ; but I could never per- 
suade him to invest in it. "If it's such a real good 
thing you had better slick to it yourself, Martingale, and 
let nobody else in." I did not like the remark about let- 
ting people in ; but I was not in a position to quarrel with 
Slowcombe. He parted from me on the last day but one of 
September, telling me he wanted twenty-four hours to 
get his guns ready, and impressing upon me the best 
train by which to start for Ploughshire on the morrow. 
The next morning (the 30th) I wrote him this letter 
from the Club : 

"My Dear Slowcombe: I am exceedingly sorry to 
disappoint you — and still more so to disappoint myself — 
but I regret to say that my proposed visit to you has 
been knocked in the head. The enclosed telegram will 
explain itself. Nothing but the most urgent business 
would have prevented my keeping my engagement, and 
I feel confident, from the ideas you have otteu expressed 
to me respecting the necessity of attending strictly to the 
G. B. C, I need no further apology for my absence. 
You will doubtless have many another guu with you, 
and if the phrase of ' the more the merrier ' can be ap- 
plied to pheasant shooting, that of 'the fewer the better 
cheer ' is certainly still more to the purpose. A fuller 
bag will, I hope, compensate for the absence of yours, 
most faithfully, Makmaduke Martingale." 

Then having the envelope open, I proceeded to con- 
coct the telegram : 

"From the Secretary of the Great Butter Company 
(Limited), Cornhill, to Marmaduko Martingale, Esq., 
Military, Naval and Militia Club, Pall Mull.— Defalca- 
tions havo been discovered in tho company's accounts. 
I am therefore compelled to summon an extraordinary 
meeting of the Board of Directors for Wednesday next, 
when your presence will bo mdinpensable." 

I gave this composition to tho club commissionaire, an 
active, intelligent fellow, whom I had often employed, 
and sent him oil' to the nearest telegraph office. I calcu 
lated that it would return to me — in telegraphic form — 
in about a quarter of an hour at tho furthest. But as it 
happened it did not. I had an ougagoment for that af- 



ternoon at Hurlingham, and was obliged to leave the 
club before the arrival of the expected document. How- 
ever, as I knew it must come, and could place the utmost 
confidence in the porter, I left my letter with him, in- 
structing him to place the telegram inside it as soon as it 
came to hand, and then to post it. The next morning I 
found upon inquiry that this had been done, and thought 
no more about the matter. The day after a note, as I 
had expected, arrived from Slowcombe, the contents of 
which, however, I did not expect: 

" Sir : I am astonished that you should have the as- 
surance to send me that telegram from your place of 
business. If you imagine because your Secretary has 
"bolted," and the "blessed concern" (as your friend 
terms what I had understood from you to be a sound 
commercial association), has " burst up," that I shall not 
be disposed to press for my hundred pounds, you are 
very much mistaken. I have placed the matter in the 
hands of my solicitor, and remain, yours obediently, 

Thomas Slowcombe." 

Had 1 taken leave of my own senses, or had Slow- 
combe taken leave of his? "Bolted," "burst up," 
" blessed concern 1" No such words, I am sure, had ever 
been contained in my telegram. What on earth did it 
all mean? I did a thing which I had never done before, 
except upon the first Monday in every month — I hurried 
to our place of business in the city as fast as a hansom 
could take me, and found the shutters up. The office of 
the G. B. C. was closed — just as though the company 
had been defunct. Up stairs, however, I fonnd the chair- 
man looking at a heap of bills and gnawing his mus- 
tache. 

" This is a pretty piece of work, Captain Martingale," 
said he, "and we have to thank you for it." 

"To thank me 1" cried I. " What do you mean ? Is 
everybody gone mad? I have done nothing — nothing." 

" Perhaps you didn't send a telegram to our secretary 
about 'defalcations?' Here it is." And he tossed me 
over the message I had sent from the secretary to my- 
self — transposed. That respectable and intelligent com- 
missionaire had, it seemed, taken it for granted that I 
had made a mistake in sending a telegram to myself, and 
substituted the word " from " for "to" and "to" for 
" from." He thought, doubtless, he was doing a very 
clever thing, and one for which I should be much in- 
debted to him. 

The secretary really had, it seems, " defalcated " in a 
small way, and getting my telegram (instead of getting 
his), he thought all was discovered, so laid his hands on 
everything he could and decamped. It was the chair- 
man himself who had wired the news to me in that- 
familiar style which had so incensed Slowcombe : " Our 
secretary has bolted, and the blessed concern has 
burst up." 

The Great Butter Company, in fact, was nowhere, 
thanks to my little device for avoiding pheasant shoot- 
ing. The secretary would probably never have fled, but 
only have gone on defalcating slowly, but for my alarm- 
ing message ; as it was, everything was precipitated, in- 
cluding the compulsory payment of my debt to Slow- 
combe. It was altogether a miserable fiasco ; and when 
I hear fellows talking about the splendid results of civili- 
zation, and " Look at the electric telegraph, for exam- 
ple!" and " the corps of commissionaires /" I say to my- 
self but never mind what I say. I have told enough 

to make it understood why I should not agree with 
them. — Boston Courier. 



Congress and the Western Union Telegraph 
Company. 

The course of President Orton, of the Western Union 
Telegraph Co., in refusing to accede to the demands of 
both branches of Congress that he deliver to their inves- 
tigating committees the originals of certain telegrams, 
receives the commendation of the better portion of the 
press, irrespective of politics. " Tho right of tho people 
to be secure in their person, houses, papers and effects 
against unreasonable searches and seizures," the Consti- 
tution declares shall not be violated. If the privacy of 
communicating by telegraph is to be invaded on every 
pretext, letters and every other mode of communication 
are liable to the samo treatment. If private communi- 
cations are thus to be proclaimed upon the house tops, 
if the privilcgo of interchange of thought is to be 
abridged, tho liberties of tho people are endangered. 
The secrecy of the telegraph wire must remain inviolate. 
It is now the grout medium of communication in all mat- 
ters of pressing importance. But its value lies largely in 
the fact of tho privacy of messages. The Western 
Union (Jo. has heretofore preserved the originals of tele- 
grams chiefly for its own convenience. But recognizing 
that if Congress can enforce their delivory to third par- 
ties, the efficiency of tho telegraph will bo lessened and 
their business consequently injured, tho directors have 
ordered Mr. Orton to resist by all legal means. They 
have also gone further, and to avoid similar difficulties in 
the future, will direct all original messages to he de- 
stroyed after sending, oxcept in casos where a special re- 
quest for preservation is raado, 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 6, 1817 



This is a matter not of political and temporary interest 
merely. The entire commercial and social public is con- 
cerned ihat the arbitrary power now claimed by Congress 
in this special emergency be resisted. — The Chicago Rail- 
way Review. ' 



Telegraphic Progress in Australia. 

In no part of the world has telegraphic energy of late 
years been more signally displayed than in the Austra- 
lian colonies. The extension of the Eastern Company's 
system to Sydney seems to have given an impulse to 
telegraphic progress which has made itself evident by the 
constantly increasing number of new lines that have 
been and are being erected. The latest of these is the 
line connecting South and Western Australia, thus bring- 
ing the latter into communication with the other colonies 
and the rest of the world. The all but impassable desert 
— the nature of which until within recent years was en- 
tirely unknown — has now been crossed, and a telegraph 
line has been erected over a tract of country which re- 
mained a sealed letter until opened up by the energy of 
G-iles, Forrest, Warburton, and Eyre. The work which 
has here been done during the last few months deserves 
to be ranked amongst the foremost achievements of tele- 
graphic construction. 

The line has been erected and the work has been car- 
ried on along a route which hitherto had baffled the efforts 
of every traveller, with the sole exception of Eyre, who 
ultimately succeeded in making his way through it. 

The South Australian colony undertook the comple- 
tion of the line from Port Lincoln to Eucla B ty, upon 
the great Australian Bight, where the system of Western 
Australia joined it. Through the energy of Mr. Chas. Todd, 
C. M. G-., the Postmaster-General and Superintendent of 
Telegraphs to the colony, uuder whose immediate direc- 
tions the work has been carried out, the South Australian 
G-overnmeut have all but completed their part of the 
contract. The entire length, 600 miles, carrying a single 
wire, has been built within the short space of twelve 
month?, and this in the face of obstacles which at first 
sight appeared to be almost insurmountable. A track of 
filty feet wide had to be carried for hundreds of miles 
through the forest, and even this was but a small part of 
the difficulties which had to be overcome. The means of 
transit, it was at first thought, would all but prevent the 
work from being carried out. All the stores had to be 
carted, and the lack of water, a great drawback in so 
many parts of Australia, seemed to effectually bar the way. 
Oue hundred horses have been employed and kept con- 
stantly at work, although in some oases they were as far 
off as 145 miles from the nearest water supply. 

The line is built throughout, except at crossings where 
the roads of the future are marked out, of Oppenheimer's 
iron poles, nineteen feet in length, and each fitted with a 
lightning conductor. Sixteen are used to the- mile. The 
ordinary No. 8 galvanized iron wire is run on white por- 
celain insulators, side brackets of the usual type being 
employed to support it. The closed system of working 
is that which is adopted, and the field operator in the 
van of the constructing party keeps up communication 
with the nearest battery station, which is 450 miles off. 
At times the line is put through to Adelaide, and a circuit 
ot over 800 miles is thus formed, and has been worked 
with the utmost satis r action — not a single hitch of any 
kind having as yet occurred in c onDection with it. — The 
Telegraphic Journal. 



Petitions for the Establishment of Wovemment 
' Telegraphs. 

It seems that there are still some people who desire 
the Government to acquire and operate the telegraphs in 
the United States. The following printed form of peti- 
tion is being sent to Congress with the signatures of citi- 
zens in different sections of the country. They are ap- 
propriately referred, and that is Likely to be the last of 
them, so far as the present Congress is concerned: 
" To the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress 
assembled. 

u We, the undersigned, citizens of the United States, do 
humbly petition your honorable body to pass such a 
law as shall enforce the provisions of the act passed by 
Congress on July 24, 1866, viz: The United States may, 
for postal, military, or other purposes, purchase all the 
telegraph lines, property and effects, of any or all com- 
panies as may, acting under the provisions of the act of 
July 24, 1866, entitled ' An Act to aid in the construction 
of telegraphic lines, and to secure to the Government the 
use of the same for postal, military and other purposes,' 
or, under this title, at an appraised value, to be ascer- 
tained by five competent disinterested persons, two of 
whom shall be selected by the Postmaster-General of the 
United States, two by the company interested, and one 
by the four so previously selected. 

" To these provisions the Western Union Telegraph 
Company has filed its assent. 

" We believe that the telegraph belongs properly to 



the Post-office Department, that it should be incorpor- 
ated therewith and worked for the benefit alike of the 
Government and the people. 

" The Government alone can secure to us the freedom of 
the press and the sanctity of private correspondence. 

" We believe that the privileges extended to the 
Western Union Telegraph Company have been grievously 
abused ; that its exactions have become unreasonable ; 
that the enormous extent to which its share capital has 
been increased, and the creation of a large bonded debt, 
have necessitated the high rates charged, notwithstand- 
ing the reductions made by other companies. 

"It is evident that the Government could not be 
obliged to pay more for these lines than it would cost to 
duplicate them. 

" We believe that a uniform rate, as low as 25 cents, 
can be made for messages throughout the United States — 
the same being the rate in Canada and England — and 
that with an increase of business such as has followed 
cheaper postage and the postal cards, a still lower rale can 
be made. 

" And your petitioners will ever pray." 



Russian Telegraphs. 

The official report on the condition of the telegraph 
system in Russia prior to 1875 has just been published. 

On January 1st, 1875, Russia possessed State tele- 
graph lines to the extent of 57,7 ISf wersts, with a total 
wire length of 111,8134; wersts (the werst equals about § 
of an English mile). There were added in 1874 thirty- 
four stations, making a total of 701 stations. There 
were added in 1874 to the apparatus in use 49 Morse and 
22 Hughes, making a total of 1,650 Morse and 98 
Hughes. 

Of telegraphs other than those owned by the Govern- 
ment there were railway telegraph lines of 14,982 w., 
with 32,064 w. of wires, and 901 stations; an increase 
of 2,009 w. in the lines, 3,994f w. in the wires, and 108 
stations. The Anglo-Indian telegraph line had 3,407 w. 
line, 70,834 w. wire and 53 stations. There were con- 
structed in 1874, of telegraphs belonging to private 
companies and persons 18A. w. line, 184, w. wire and 7 sta- 
tions, making a total at the beginning of 1875 of 342*. w. 
line and wire and 36 stations. 

Thus the entire telegraph system of Russia contained, 
at the beginning of 1875, 76,4504. w. line, 152,303| w. 
wire, and 1,691 stations. At the beginning of 1875 
there were 126 Post-offices open for the despatch of tele- 
graph messages. 

The entire number of persons employed was 6,393, 
showing an increase of 380 persons during the year. The 
total inland correspondence (of paid and free messages) 
was in 1874, 3,116,168, showing an iuorease of lOJper 
cent, on 1873. The total international traffic (messages 
sent and received) was 684,257, showing an increase of 
lit per cent, on 1873. 

The gross receipts of the telegraph department in 
1874 were 4,822,661 roubles, against 4.630,029 roubles in 
the previous year, an increase of 4.1 per cent. (The 
rouble is equal to about 80 cents in United States cur- 
rency.) The expenditure was 3,899,748 roubles, against 
3,646,22 roubles in 1873, an increase of 6.9 per cent. 
The net revenue during 1874 was 922,913 roubles, 
against 983,809 roubles in 1873, or about 60,896 roubles 
less. 



More Telegraphic Facilities. 

The Western Union Telegraph Company have just 
completed the erection of a fourth wire between Reno, 
Nevada, and Salt Lake. This wire is No. 6, the largest 
gauge used for telegraphing, and is intended for the use of 
the quadruplex instiument, whereby four messages can be 
sent over the same wire simultaneously. The length of 
this wire is about 600 miles. This section of the com- 
pany's line has also been entirely reinsulated, and all pine 
poles taken out and replaced by redwood, making this 
one of the most substantial and best pieces of telegraph 
lines in the United States. The company has expended 
about $70,000 on this section alone this year. To meet 
the growing business of the company on the Pacific 
Coast over 1,500 miles of new lines have been put up this 
year, at a cost of nearly $200,000. Telegraphs are not 
like railroads, that merely have to hitch on more cars to 
carry the increased traffic, but when the capacity of a 
wire is reached a new one must be put up, and extra 
operators employed to work it, and for this reason the 
company claim that rates cannot be greatly reduced 
without a loss in profits. 

The new wire was completed just in time to enable us 
to get the President's message through in time for yester- 
day's Bulletin, but about three hours being required for 
its transmission from Washington, a distance of about 
3,500 miles— a feat which does great credit to the com- 
pany, and expresses better than any thing else can the 
great facilities it now possesses for the transmission of 
messages. — Bulletin, San Francisco. 



Why Telegraph Poles are so Large. 

In the interests of electricity -the Draiver commends 
this, just received from Cincinnati, to the investigating 
department of the Western Union Telegraph Company: 

" In the building in which the writer was employed 
some time since was a negro porter named Burnet. 
Among his duties was that of carrying telegraphic mes- 
sages to the offices of the companies for transmission. He 
had cudgeled his brains as to the method thereof, and 
the result was indicated one day when there happened 
to be passing a wagon loaded with the large poles used 
by the telegraph companies in supporting their wires. 
Upon my alluding to their extraordinary size, Burnet, 
who was standing near, said : 

" 'I 'specs dem telegraph poles has to be pooty large, 
don't dey, Mr. H.?' 

" ' What makes you think that?' I asked. 

" ' Well, I spo?e just for de standing dey don't need to 
be so big, but when dey puts on de pressu dey has to be 
pooty strong.' 

" ' What do you mean by putting on the pressure ?' 

" 'Why,' said he, ' When dey sends de messages over, 
don't dey have to put on de pressu ?' " — Harper's Mag. 



The Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association. 

Assessments 89 and 90, December 30, 1876. 

DEATH OF JESSIE B. MELLOR AND J. HENRY ROGERS. 

Jessie B. Mellor died of consumption at Pittsburg, Pa., 
Nov. 18, 1876 ; his certificate, No. 1106, was issued March 
13, 1871. 

J. Henry Rogers died of consumption at Ogdensburg, 
N. T., Nov. 28th, 1876: his certificate, No. 1232, was 
issued Sept. 5, 1871. 

Two dollars are due for assessments 89 and 90 from mem- 
bers holding certificates up to and including No. 2795 ; one 
dollar is due for assessment No. 90 from members hold- 
ing certificates numbered from 2795 to and including 
2811. Members who have not remitted for assessments 
of Sept. 1st, Nos. 87 and 88. will please consider this a 
duplicate notice that assessments are due and should be 
paid at once. 

RECEIPT OF ASSESSMENTS. 

New York, December 23, 1876. 
Assessment No. 86. 

2418. 
Assessment No. 87. 

1278, 2633. 
Assessment No. 88. 
17. 22, 31, 85, 86, 87, 438, 490, 503, 601, 695, 697, 705 
931, 1071, 1141, 1155, 1157, 1160, 1207, 1267, 1284, 1400, 
1556, 1557, 7570, 1609, 1613, 1670, 1704, 1744, 1847', 
1945, 1946, 1947, 1987, 2086, 2128, 2132, 2147, 2]5l' 
2236, 2279, 2280, 2281, 2282, 2283, 2152, 2448, 2552' 
2594, 2595, 2603, 2684, 2738. 

Assessment No. 89. 
64, 138, 182, 217, 235, 286, 319, 333, 509, 552, 592 
943, 1077, 1092, 1153. 1157. 1678, 1742, 1852, 2275 
2319, 2430, 2495, 2525, 2558, 2607, 2720, 2722, 2723 
2725, 2726. 2727, 2728,2730, 2734, 1735,2736, 2737' 
2738, 2758.2760, 2780. 2796, 2797, 2798, 2799, 2800, 280l' 
2802, 2803, 2804, 2805, 2806, 2807, 2808, 2809, 2810. 

Assessment No. 90. 

121, 131, 208, 211. 262, 277, 289, 302. 312 564 

615. 708, 742, 799, 832, 874, 915, 976, 1154, 1199 

1357, 1407, 1503, 1516, 1524 1538, 1601, 1656, 1840* 

1862, 1938, 2026, 2038, 2066, 2103, 2240, 2270, 2305 

2346, 2363, 2690, 2724, 2780, 2811, 2812, 2813, 2814 

2815, 2816, 2817, 2818, 2819, 2820, 2821, 2822, 2823' 

2824, 2825, 2826, 2827, 2828, 2829, 2830, 2831, 2832' 

2833, 2834, 2835, 2836, 2837, 2838, 2839, 2840 284l' 
2842. 

A Friendly Telegraphic Wish. 

The following message, which passed through a West- 
ern repeating office recently from a gentleman friend of 
the bride to the lady herself, although not very eloquent 
is certainly expressive : 

" Accept my congratulation. 

My best and heartiest wishes ; 
And if through life you can 

Be sure and wear the breeches." 



Lighting' a City by Turning- on the Cfas. 

A modification of the method of lighting gas by elec- 
tricity has lately been patented. The invention is in- 
tended to light all the street lamps of a city at once by 
simply turning on the gas, when the pressure alone will 
make an electric connection at every burner. The ar- 
rangement is as follows- A glass cup is immersed in 
liquid, and when the gas is turned on it enters under the 
cup and lifts the same, thereby establishing connection 
with a battery, which heats a platinum wire placed over 
the burner, and thus ignites the gas. 



Jatt. 6, 187?.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



3 



©MWiismtttua. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Winter Arrangements. — Personals .and Changes. 

— Effects of a Violent Storm.— Practical 

Jokes. 

Cleveland, 0., Dec. 28. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

This is to remind you and your readers that the A. & 
P. still exists in this vicinity. Not seeing anything from 
this locality lately, I thought some of your distant read- 
ers might think an injunction had been served on our 
communications, or that the A. & P. had gone into win- 
ter quarters. 

Ananjunction might have been served if Speaker Ran- 
dall hadn't given them a harder nut to crack. I dare 
say the Ohio and Indiana judges and lawyers are very 
angry at Speaker Randall, because of his drawing the at- 
tention of the W. U. from the A. & P. and allowing the 
latter to slide along without an injunction for a lunch. I 
might say here, that the A. & P. are using no " sliding 
scales." 

Business has remained very good for the A. & P. To 
be sure it slacked up some, but not enough to warrant 
any degree of reduction of force, or salaries either. 
Detroit has been the only office that has had its force 
reduced thus far. 

Business in this office has been remarkably good for 
this time of year. Although not rushing, there is enough 
to keep the boys busy. 

In the W. U. affairs are not so prospering; a reduction 
of force was inaugurated on the 15th inst., but in such a 
manner as to reflect great credit on Supt. "Wright. On 
the 15th inst. he began reduction by laying off two men 
for 15 days. They then return and another couple goes. 
The scale is so arranged as to carry the reductiou through 
to the first of Aprik None but unmarried men are on 
the list. 

In case, howevej, this reduction is not sufficient to 
carry them through, then a third man will be added to 
the list, taking those that were not laid off last winter. 
This is an admirable arrangement. It gives the boys a 
rest, and knowledge that situations await them wheu the 
time is up. Why can't all Sup'ts follow Mr. Wright's 
plan ? It would create a harmonious feeling all around. 
The boys here think it a splendid arrangement. 

Since my last, several changes have been made in this 
district, a few of which were mentioned in the last num- 
ber of The Telegrapher. Those were in regard to De- 
troit. 

Mr. Pitcher, manager of our dock office, has been ap- 
pointed manager of Urbana, Ohio office, vice 

Kirtland removed. The dock office is closed for the 
winter. 

Mr. Burke resigned the managership of the Sandusky, 
0., office, and has gone on the relaying force at Spring- 
field, 0. Miss Lizzie Dawson takes the managership at 
Sandusky — a worthy appointment. Sandusky is not 
only a lively office in point of business, but an important 
testing office, and Miss Dawson thoroughly understands 
her duties. Managers and chief operators are loud in 
their praises. 73 to her. 

W. H. Phillips, our cashier, has been very sick for the 
past two weeks, but is now on the mend and hopes to be 
with us in a few days. All will be glad to see his genial 
countenance once more. 

None of the boys have suffered for the want of a " nickle 
till pay day," as acting cashier Young knows how 'tis 
himself. Wm. Umsted has gone home to Tiffin, 0., to 
spend the holidays. 

Good for him that he did not have to pass through the 
hands of Custom House officers on the way, or silk 
handkerchiefs would been seized. 

C. P. Wilcox goes to Toledo to meet the New Year. 
Says, can see it earlier there — and I guess he can. 

Quite a panic was created by the falling in of the office 
roof during the high wind that prevailed several nights 
ago. A couple of tall chimneys falling with the roof 
made it all the more interesting. It happened at 
2 o'clock, A. M., while the men were hard at work. 
The crash served as an injunction on further work just 
at that time. Mr. Thomas was working the New York 
wire at the time, but did not recognize the importance of 
the wire half as much as he did getting out the front 
door. He did not forsake his plug hat, although he did 
his coat. The rest of us followed suit. 

As the roof did not come clean through the boys re- 
turned to their work, but you can rest assured one eye 
was on the work while the other was searching the best 
way to get out in case the roof came through. 

That wind tangled the wires up in line style. Before 



noon, next day, the repairers took out 37 crosses and 4 
grounds in the city. Between 8 o'clock, A. M. and 5:30 
o'clock, P. M. 67 crosses were taken out — 30 outside of 
the city. The fire alarm was all blown down in the 
city, and mixed up with commercial wires. 

Operators are unfortunate in having jokes played on 
them, but a certain operator in Buffalo, A. & P. office, met 
with a pretty good one. He was out sleigh riding one 
night, a short time ago, and when through took the horse 
to the barn, and taking the robe started for home. He 
was met by a star, who collared him and invited him to 
the "cell "-ar. " G " was alarmed, and in accents wild 
exclaimed, " Do you take me for a thief?" Star — "N-o- 
I guess not!" 

G. protested, and finally all the neighbors had to be 
aroused before he was identified and let loose. It's said 
a new plug hat he wore so disguised him the policemen 
didn't know him. 

Another one is on a Pittsburg A. & P., man who was 
presented with a flue boy a few days ago. He was very 
much excited and telegraphed a few of his lightning 
friends, " A boy. Weighs 8 pounds and 6 inches /" 

F. 



Personals. 

Detroit, Mich., Dec. 21. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

The usual dullness of winter is settling down upon us, 
the force at the W. IT. being reduced two on the first of 
this month, although, I am informed, business is much 
better as compared with this time last year, when three 
were laid off on first of December. 

Mrs. Eva Ward has been tranferred from the W. U. 
office here to Grand Rapids, Mich., office, to work the 
new Detroit and Grand Rapids wire recently built via 
Kalamazoo. 

W. A. Baker, another of the victims, has been subbing 
for two weeks for Mr. Cooper, report operator at Jack- 
son, Mich. 

R. E. Cuppage, more generally known as "Bob," is 
spending the holidays with his relations in Canada. Ex- 
pect he will resume his place on " Bu " quad., nights, Jan- 
uary 1st. 

I understand that Geo. Thompson (Fatty), the light 
weight of the A, and P. here, has resigned to accept of a 
situation with the same company at Cincinnati. 

Patsey. 



Aew Patents. 

IfW Official Copies of any U. 8. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications, and claims in full, 
sent free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, 
Elizabeth. N. J. 

For the week ended Nov. 21, 1876, and hearing that date. 

184,528.— Electro- Vapor Baths.— Thomas W. Johnson and J. 
N. Cherry, Keokuk, Iowa. [Filed June 30, 1876.] 
1. The adjustable hinged neck yoke in combination with a 
closed chamber and vapor bath apparatus, substantially as set 
forth. 
, 2. The adjustable shoulder cover and neck yoke, arranged to 
suit persons of different lengths, in combination with vapor 
bathing apparatus and a closed chamber, substantially as set 
forth. 

3. The combination of the vapor bathing chamber, the adjust- 
able bed B, the steam inlet and the movable conductors of elec- 
tricity, arranged substantially as set forth. 

4. The vapor bathing chamber, with flexible cover E and ad- 
justable bed B, in combination with separate conductors of 
electricity to be applied within the bathing chamber, substan- 
tially as set forth. 

5. The combination of the cushions L, the adjustable con- 
ductor N, the flexible cover E, and steam inlet P, substantially 
as set forth. 

6. The combination of the box A with the flexible cover E 
and hinged folding frame, arranged to fold up into the box, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

7. The combination of an enclosing cover O, the hand holes, 
with elastic sleeves K, arranged to admit the band and retain 
the steam, and a steam inlet P, substantially as set forth. 

8. In combination with a vapor bath, the hinged seat C and 
support D, substantially as set forth. 

9. The adjustable vapor inlet P, arranged to discharge alter- 
nately under a loot bath, and separately, in conmbination with 
a vapor battling apparatus and a foot bath, substantially as set 
forth. " 

10. In combination with a closed vapor bath chamber, the 
foot bath and the vapor inlet, arranged to heat the foot bath by 
opening under it, substantially as set forth. 

184,566.— Signal Boxes for District and Fire Telegraph .— 
Daniel II. Whilldin, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to himself 
and Alexander Morion, New York city. [Filed May 13, 
1876.] 

1. The combination with the break wheel, the circuit closing 
spring and circuits of the handle a, eircular notched governor r 
and yielding tooth s, substantially as and for the purposes set 
fcrth. 

2. The combination with the break wheel, circuit closing 
spring, handle a and circuits of the self-acting spring switch or 
key and electro-magnet in the branch circuit, substantially as 
and for the purposes set forth. 

184,621.— Frictional Electric Machines.— Charles II. Hinds, 
New York, N. Y. [Filed August 26, 1876.] 

1. The combination, in a frictional electrical machine, of a 
cylindrical generator open at one end, one or more rubbers 
acting on the exterior surface of said generator, and one or 
more rubbers acting on its interior surface, substantially as 
shown and described. 

2. In a condenser for electricity, composed of alternate layers 
of india rubber and metal foil, the combination with the metallic 



layers of compound sheets of rubber, each sheet being made of 
a vulcanized sheet situated between two unvulcanized sheets, 
the whole being constructed substantially as set forth. 

3. A discharging device for a frictional electrical machine 
composed of two bell crank levers, a link connecting the short 
arms thereof, and a spring button acting on said link, substan- 
tially as shown and described. 

4. The combination of a cylindrical generator open at one end, 
with a tubular condenser placed inside of said generator, sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

5. The combination, with a cylindrical generator open at one 
end, a tubular condenser situated within the generator, and a 
discharging device of a jacket enclosing the generator and the 
condenser, and of a suitable casing for the protection of the 
working machine, said working parts being suspended in the 
case by means of insnlated plates, substantially as and for the 
purpose described. 

184,679.— Electro-Magnetic Alarms.— D. H. Whilldin, Brook- 
lyn, assignor to himself and Alexander Morten, New York, 
N. Y. [Filed June 19, 1876.] 

1. The electro-magnet a, set to swing upon the pivot b, in 
combination with the two armatures d and e, and bell or signal, 
and circuit connections, substantially as set forth. 

2. The combination with the electro-magnet a and two arma- 
tures, d and e, of the circuit spring i, linger key w, and circuit 
connections, substantially as set forth. 

3. The combination with an electro-magnet swinging upon 
pivots, of a counter weight c, spring »' and arm v, substantially 
as and for the purposes set forth. 

For the week ended Nov. 28, 1876, and bearing that date. 
184,774.— Apparatus for Transmitting and Receiving Sig- 
nals, etc— John S. Gisborne, Buckingham street, London 
England. [Filed September 27, 1876.] 

1. The combination, with the indicating dial and transmitting 
wheel or segment g, and connector o, of the repeating connector 
o\ wheel or segment/, and pointer, substantially as set forth. 

2. The transmitting mechanism, substantially as specified, for 
giving a distant signal, in combination with the repeating 
mechanism, substantially as set forth, to indicate at the trans" 
mitting end the reception of the message, substantially as speci 
tied. 

184,807.— Electric Gas Lighting Apparatus.— Jacob P Tir- 
rell, Somerville, Mass. [Filed January 14, 1876.] 
Circuit breaking arm passes through armature lever, and is 
operated thereby. Pawl that operates gas cock hung so as to 
adjust itself to the movements of the armature lever. A push 
rod is attached to armature lever for operating it in case magnet 
fails. 

1. The armature lever H and circuit breaker K, combined 
together, and arranged substantially as described. 

2. The spring pawl k, hung on armature lever H, so that it can 
swing sidewise, substantially as and for the purpose specified. 

3. The push rod S, arranged to operate armature lever H, sub- 
stantially as and for the purpose described. 

184,842.— Circuit Closers for Electric Railroad Signals — 
Joseph I. Conklin, Jr., New York, assignor to himself and 
C. A. Dresser, Brooklyn, N. Y. [Filed April 27, 1876.] 
Insures a tight case for the circuit closer, and provides means 

for adjusting the same from the outside. 

1. The plate t, with the circuit wire i, in combination with the 
layers b c of india rubber, and the circuit closing spring n sub- 
stantially as set forth. 

2. The layers of rubber bed, plate t, circuit wire i, spring n, 
bolt o, and block m, in combination with the plates a and /' and 
bolts g, substantially as set forth. 

184,932.— Dry Electric Piles.— C. L. Van Tenac, Paris, France, 
assignor to A. M. Hays, New York, N. Y. [Filed October 
24, 1876.] 

1. In a dry electric pile, the combination, with the external 
element, of the internal zinc element/, constructed of a coil of 
zinc wire, or a perforated zinc plate, to allow of the passage of 
the gases formed between the two elements, as shown and de- 
scribed, and for intensifying the electricity produced. 

2. The construction of the external chloride of silver shell a 
with an internal undulated silver or platinum wire, for the pur- 
pose of augmenting the production of the electricity, and of 
strengthening the shell itself, as above described and illustrated 

3. The bottom d, provided with the hole, and with plug d\ 
for charging and recharging the pile, as above described and 
illustrated. 

4. The combination of the parts hi. I, m, h\ is, n, l\ o and p 
for the purpose of making or breaking contact, as above de- 
scribed and illustrated. 

For the week ended Dec. 5, 1876, and bearing that date, 

4,176.— Volta or Electro-Galvanic Goods for Medical 
Purposes.— John E. Hetherington, Cincinnati, Ohio. Ap- 
plication filed October 5, 1876. 
A symbol or device consisting of the representation of a group 
of elements arranged to form a volta-galvanic or electric chain 
or battery, or a part of a chain or battery, from which lightning 
flashes proceed. Across the face of the above described symbol 
are arranged the words " Pulvermacher Galvanic Co.," and 
below it a correct/ac simile of the autograph signature of J. L. 
Pulvermacher. 

185,047.— Electric Governors for Motors, Clocks, etc.— 
J. E. Rettig, Washington, D. C. [Filed May 9, 1876.] 

1. The combination of one or more pivoted levers, D and X 
which are disengaged by electro-magnets, the circuits to which 
are closed by the motion of the motor or clock, thereby causing 
one or more-electro-magnets, (J and R, to act upon a lever M of 
a clutch arrangement, which, by arrangement, will act upon the 
admission valve or expansion gear of the motor, all as specified, 

2. The method herein described of breaking the current F P, 
consisting in the introduction of the electro-magnet r, and the 
closing ot the electric circuit h, ikl m, n o p by the pivoted levers 
D and X. 

•3. The devices herein described for breaking the contact of 
the pivoted levers D and X and the brass block E, consisting of 
an electric circuit 1 II III IV V VI, and one or more electro- 
magnets A' B\ the circuit to which is closed by the motion of 
the motor shaft. 

184,966.— Magneto-Electric Machines.— Alfred G. Holcombe 
New York, N. Y. [Filed October 7, 1876.] 
The revolving armature C, consisting of a soft iron ring, disk, 
or cylinder, either solid or hollow, wound longitudinally, and 
inclosed by a series of independent sections or bobbins made of 
insulated electrical conductors having free ends, substantially 
as and for the purposes specified. 



Now is the timo to send in subscriptions for The Tblm- 

tiRAI'IIKK. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 6, 1817. 



The Tele gib apher 

Bbyotbd to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1877. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY 

At 20 COETLANDT STEEET, Boom 5. 



T ^W E T_. F T H VOLUME. 



TEEMS OP SUBSCRIPTION. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES FIVE DENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 

Dominion of Canada. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 

RATES OP ADVERTISING. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil) each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 60 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

One Column, " '• 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty per Cent 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any persons sending the names and money for four Sub- 
scribers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per 
year, will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
ohange in their address, must always send their old as 
well, as their new address. 

Remittances lor subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Communications must be addressed to 

J. B". ASHLEY, Publisher, 

P. O. Box 5503.) SO COMTLANDT ST., New York. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISING PAGES. 

- ' page. 

American Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph •. . iv. 

Ashley, J.N t ii, iii, vi. 

Bishop Gutta Percha Works ii. 

Bliss, George H. & Co . i. 

Brooks, David ii. 

Buell, M. A., & Sons i. 

Chester, Charles T vi. , 

Day, A. G iii. 

Electric R. R. Signal Company ii. 

Lannert & Decker ii. 

Moore, Joseph & Sons , i. 

Merchants' Manufacturing and Construction Co vi. 

Norris, James L vi. 

Phillips, Eugene F i. 

Protection Life Insurance Co iii. 

Russell Brothers i. 

Shiras, J. O. & Co i. 

The Leclanche Battery Company iii. 

Tillotson, L. G. & Co, v. 

Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association v. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Co i, iii, v, vi. 

Wallace & Sons i. 

Watts & Co v. 

Williams, Charles. Jr i. 



The Telegrapher may be had at the news stand in 
the Receiving Office of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, corner of Broadway and Dey street, ivhere it is 
regularly on sale. 



Extra Premium for Subscriptions. 

The popularity of Mr. Phillips' interesting and amus- 
ing work, Oakum Pickings, and the desire manifested 
by telegraphers generally to possess a copy, have induced 
us to offer it as an extra premium for subscriptions to 
The Telegrapher. For three yearly subscribers, at the 
regular subscription price of Two Dollars per year, or 
their equivalent in shorter subscriptions, we will for- 
ward, post paid, to the person sending them, a copy of 
this work. 

We will also forward the book, post paid, on receipt of 
the price, $1.50, or three copies for $3.75. 



Commencement of the Thirteenth Yolume. 

With this number commences the Thirteenth volume 
of The Telegrapher. It has now, we believe, been 
consecutively published longer than any other journal in 
the world especially devoted to telegraphy. That it has 
done some good during the years that it has regularly 
made its appearance, we are assured. Untrammelled by 
connection with any telegraph company or combination, 
it has been independent in character, and its main pur- 
pose has been to advance the interests of practical tele- 
graphers. How far this purpose has been accomplished 
it is not perhaps for us to say. We have been almost 
constantly in receipt of assurances of its value and of 
appreciation from those best qualified to give an in- 
telligent and reliable opinion, which have been very 
gratifying. The Telegrapher has had and has 
warm and devoted friends, and, we are proud to 
know, some enemies. A journal which should have been 
in existence as long as this has, without exciting opposi- 
tion and enmity from those whose selfish plans and com- 
binations the best interests of the fraternity require to 
be opposed and thwarted, would evidently be of little 
value, and have failed in its mission. Open enmity and 
opposition we do not fear ; much rather would we en- 
counter these than a stolid indifference, which is more 
damaging, and more difficult to contend against and 
overcome. 

As long as the fraternity support The Telegrapher 
it will contiDue its efforts in their behalf. When this 
support shall fail we shall regard it as a declaration that 
its services and influence are no longer required by those 
whom it has sought to benefit. We trust that all who 
consider this journal as valuable to the practical tele- 
graphers of the country, will exert themselves to not only 
maintain its present circulation but to increase and ex- 
tend it. We are confident that the value of every dollar 
which has been invested in The Telegrapher by the 
fraternity has been returned to them many times over, 
and that, should any mischance divert it from the prin- 
ciples and policy by which it has heretofore been 
governed, the result would be most unfortunate to them, 
and that it would be generally so regarded in a very 
short time. We have no wealthy corporation at our 
back, and must depend solely upon the legitimate busi- 
ness of the paper for its support. We know that the 
times are hard, but the trifle which it costs individually 
to secure its weekly visits can scarcely be felt, while the 
aggregate is of importance to the publisher. 

With these brief remarks, ielying upon the continu- 



been compelled to economize their expenditures to meet 
reduced incomes. Those who could do so have obtained 
other and more satisfactory employment, but the general 
depression of business has not permitted so large a with- 
drawal from telegraphic service as would otherwise have 
taken place under the circumstances. 

We believe that a general reduction on the part of the 
Western Union Company of the salaries of its employes 
was impolitic, and that a continuance of the gradual re- 
duction which had for some time been going on as vacan- 
cies in the service occurred would have been more bene- 
ficial to the company, and would have created less dissat- 
isfaction and hostility. The reduction was, however, de- 
cided upon and carried out, and most of those affected 
had no resource but to submit. 

It is to be hoped that the year upon which we have 
just entered will witness an improvement of the situa- 
tion, and that at its close we may be able to indicate a 
more satisfactory record. The telegraph business is just 
now very quiet, but when the holidays are over, and the 
time for the commencement of Spring trade arrives, 
there will, we hope, be witnessed a renewal of prosperity 
for which the sufferings and depression of the past three 
years have prepared the way. There should be, how- 
ever, and must be, if the relations of telegraph employ- 
ers and employes are to be put upon a more satisfactory 
basis, a reorganization of the service. 

Situations, salaries and employes should be graded. 
A system of promotion in positions and salaries should 
be established, which should insure industry, ability 
and application a suitable reward. This policy has 
been advocated in The Telegrapher from time to 
time, and we shall continue to advocate it until some 
definite action shall be taken. We regard this as the only 
solution of the present difficulties and dissatisfaction, and 
the only way in which many of those whose abilities and 
services are most valuable can be permanently retained 
in the business. 

As a rule, it is those who are best adapted to render 
valuable services that are induced to leave the ranks and 
engage in other avocations. This should be changed, and 
we hope will be, at no distant day. 

Although the prospects of the telegraphic faternity do 
not appear just now particularly brilliant, yet we are not 
disposed to indulge in discouraging anticipations for the 
future. We have confidence that there is a good time 
coming for telegraphic as well as other interests, and that 
when the present political complications are settled, there 
will come for all a renewal of prosperity, and the coun- 
try will enter upon a season of advancement in its mate- 
rial interests, that shall compensate for the suffering 
and depression which has inevitably followed the infla- 
tion and speculation inseparable from such a war as that 
through which the country has passed. 



fully the new volume, to be followed, we trust, by many 
more in the years to come. 



The Past, Present and Future Telegraphic 
Outlook. 

The year 1876 has completed its record, and has gone 
from the present to the past, and become historical. 
The record is not upon the whole cheerful, and, so far 
as the telegraphic fraternity is concerned, will be memo- 
rable for the general reduction of salaries, and the ap- 
plication to a majority of those receiving salaries of over 
$50 per month of the unpleasant results of a return to 
anti-inflation times. There has been a steady reduction 
of compensation of telegraphic as of other labor going 
on, which naturally has met with antagonism on the 
part of those affected. This antagonism has, however, 
been futile, and the situation has been generally accepted 
with as good a grace as possible, and telegraphers have 



The Confidential Character of Telegraphic Mes« 
sages. 

The resistance of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
ance of the support of the fraternity, we commence hope- \ pany to the demands of Congressional Committees for 

the originals of political despatches sent over its lines, 
meets with very general approval from the people and 
the press. A great principle is involved, and the 
managers of the company are entitled to credit for 
their efforts to maintain the rights of their patrons. The 
pretence that telegraphic despatches have no confidential 
attributes which will hold against supposed political exi* 
gencies is of comparatively recent origin, It was, we be- 
lieve, first broached in the impeachment trial of President 
Andrew Johnson, and it would have been better, per* 
haps, had the contest taken place and the matter been 
finally decided at that time. 

It should be remembered that the Executive Commit- 
tee and the Directors of the Western Union Company 
are composed of members of both the great political par- 
ties, and their action in resisting the assaults upon the 
confidential character of telegraphic messages is, as we 
understand, unanimous. They have taken from the offi* 
ci'als and employes of the company any control over the 



Jan. 6, 1817.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



messages called for, so that it is impossible for them to 
respond to the demands for the delivery of the despatches 
required. It would seem, therefore, that the subordinates 
of the company must be relieved from any responsibility, 
or of even technical contempt in the premises. If any 
parties are responsible it must be the directors of the 
company. Will the House of Representaitves arraign 
at its bar the Board of Directors of the company, and, 
upon refusal to comply with the demands of its commit- 
tees, commit them for contempt? This seems to be the 
position into which the matter is drifting, and we are 
curious to see the result. 

Mr. Barnes, the manager of the New Orleans West- 
ern Union office, is in Washington under arrest by the 
Sergeant-at-Arms of the House, to answer for contempt, 
and before this issue of The Telegrapher goes to press 
we shall probably learn the action of the House in his 
case. The messages called for are not under his coutrol, 
and therefore it seems to us it will be found that he is 
not in contempt. 

Probably the principal advantage to be derived from 
the contest is that public attention has been attracted to 
the principles involved, and that when the present excite- 
ment and complications are over, the rights and responsi- 
bilities of telegraph customers and telegraph companies and 
managers will be definitely settled by national legislation. 
This should have been done before, and a bill was intro- 
duced at the last session of the Senate for this purpose, 
but it failed to become a law. Under existing circum- 
stances, it is hardly probable that the present Congress 
will legislate definitely on the subject, but it is to be 
hoped that it will be taken up early by the next. Coo- 



The Telegrapher has consistently opposed the loose 
and, as we believe, unjustifiable practice which has ob- 
tained of late years in the treatment of telegraphic commu- 
nications by Congress, and we are confident that when the 
matter is properly considered the private and confidential 
character of such communications will be sustained. 



pany, and there would not have been the unnecessary 
multiplication of cables, by which shareholders have 
been robbed of their proper dividends, and high charges 
to the public have become a necessity. An amalgama- 
tion between the two existing companies would be a 
blunder, from which the Globe would ultimately receive 
injury, for after the public had suffered from the mo- 
nopoly for a time, a new company would be started 
to bring down the rates. Such a company, with two 
cables, could reckou on nearly half the business, not- 
withstanding the possession of six cables by the Anglo- 
American. The new company would then be in excellent 
financial condition, on account of its comparatively small 
capital. The other combined companies would be in a 
correspondingly bad conditiou. Two cables of the excel- 
lent quality of those of the Direct Cable Company would 
be capable of doing all the business now required be- 
tween the two continents, which is a good reason why 
no steps should be taken likely to lead to the establish- 
ment of other lines. The only cause from which the 
Direct Company has suffered has been the breaking of its 
cable three limes; it has not suffered from competition, 
for its earnings will come up to $750,000 for the current 
year, and have been at the rate of $950,000 per year for 
the last three months, or nearly 27 per cent of the total 
earnings of both transatlantic companies, though the 
Anglo-American has five cables and the Direct only one. 



The Proposed Consolidation of Atlantic Cable 
Interests. 

The proposed consolidation of the Anglo-American 
and Direct Cable interests continues to attract attention 
and opposition. A general meeting of the shareholders 
of the Direct United States. Cable Company is to be held 
in London, February 2d, to consider and act upon the 
propositions which have been made for an arrangement 
with the Anglo-American Company. Every effort will 
be made £by the Globe Telegraph and Trust Company, 
who are the prime movers in the matter to bring about a 
practical consolidation of the interests of the two com. 
panies at that time. There has been developed, how- 
ever, a powerful opposition to it, and it is probable that 
the movement will not succeed. 

We last week referred to the conditions upon which 
the Direct Cable Company were permitted to land the 
cable at Tor Bay, and the tenure upon which the Anglo- 
American hold their stations at Hart's Content and St. 
Pierre. It is a question whether, if such a consolidation 
should be effected, either company would be allowed to 
retain their present stations on the coast of the United 
States longer than until a new cable could be laid. The 
feeling in this country against any monopoly of Atlantic 
telegraphy is very strong, and Congress would be very 
likely to exert any power that it might have to prevent 
the reestablishment of such a monopoly for the second time. 
The following is a synopsis of a circular to the share 
holders of the Direct Cable Company which has been 
published since the last movement for a combination 
of Atlantic cable interests assumed importance, which 
forcibly states the objections to such a consolidation as 
is proposed : 

" The clause in the charter of the Direct Cable Company, 
prohibiting amalgamation, is of vital necessity to protect 
its interests' and to secure a reasonable tariff for the pub- 
lic. It there had been such a restriction in the charter 
of the French Cable Company, both it and the Anglo- 
American would have been better off, for there would 
have been no occasion for the creation of a third com- 



The Titlepage and Index for Yolimie XII. 

. We had expected that the Titlepage and Index of 
Volume XII of The Telegrapher would have been 
ready to send out this week, but it has been unavoidably 
delayed. It will bo forwarded with next week's paper. 



Mr. W. D. English, has been appointed manager. W. 
U. office at Hot Springs, Ark., vice Mr. Chas. Newton, 
resigned. 

Mr. Lora Boone, W. U. office, St. Louis, Mo., has 
been transferred to that company's office at Dennison, 
Texas. 

Mr. Charles Newton is working for the W. U. com- 
pany at Galveston, Texas. Mr. Charles E. Berry, of 
the St. Louis W. U. office, has been transferred to Den- 
nison, Texas, office, same company. 

Mr. E. W. Howe, of the W. U. St. Louis, Mo., office, 
has changed off with Mr. A. C. Bird, of Cincinnati, O., 
same company. 

Mr. T. G. Rowan is with the W. U. Company at St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Mr. C. E. Cloud has accepted a position on the night 
force of the W. U. St. Louis, Mo., office. 

Mr. A. Glover, of the W. U. Kansas City, Mo., office, 
has resigned. 

Mr. H. Burns, from Canada, has accepted a position at 
night operator, general office, St. L., I. M. and S. R. R., 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. E. L. Dean is working for the A. and P. R. R. Co. 
at Rolla, Mo. 

Mr. W. D. LiTTLEPiELD has been appointed superinten- 
dent of telegraph of the St. Louis and San Francisco R. 
R., at Springfield, Mo. 

Mr. John W. Ferguson, of the W. U. St. Louis, Mo., 
office, has resigned, to accept a position with the Mo. Pa- 
cific R. R. Co., at Kirkwood, Mo. 

Mr. John B. Clarke, dispatcher and master of trans- 
portation of the Cairo and St. Louis R. R., St.Louis, Mo., 
has resigned and gone to Jacksonville, Fla., for the bene- 
fit of his health. 

Mr. R. K. Saunders has been added to the night force 
of the W. U. office, at St. Louis, Mo. 

Mrs. Luther has charge of the W. U. office at Lindell 
Hotel, and Mrs. Robbins at Barnum's Hotel, St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Mr. Charles E. Riehle, of the W. U. office at St. 
Louis, Mo., has rssigned and gone to Chicago. 

Charley Day, of Chicago, has signed the "pledge." 
Will his action cause a decline in spitits? 

Mr. R. W. Irwin (old Bob) of W. U. office, St. Louis, 
Mo., is visiting his parents at Cobourg, Canada. 

Mr. Ceohge E. MILLAR, chief operator, Atlantic and 
Pacific Telegraph (Jo., St. Louis, Mo., has been quite ill, 
but has recovered sufficiently to resume his duties. 

Mr. John E. Stockmkykr is working for the A. and 
Gh W. R. R. Co., at Dayton, Ohio. 



Mr. L. H. Fisher, late of Chicago, III., has accepted a 
position with the W. U. Co., at Galveston, Texas. 

Mr. R. L. Garlich, of the W. U. St. Louis, Mo., office,, 
spent the holidays at Omaha, Neb. 

Mr. Fred H.Phillips, of Little Falls, N. Y., chief op- 
erator of the Eastern Division of the N. Y. Central and 
Hudson R:ver Railroad, and the oldest telegrapher in* 
service on the road, was, on Christmas day, presented 
with a valuable silver set by the telegraph operators of 
the division.. 

Miss Gether and Miss Belle Wise have been ap- 
pointed to positions on the day force of the St. Louis, 
Mo., Western Union' office. 

Miss Carrie Gatchell has been appointed manager of 
the Atlantic and Pacific Lindell Hotel office at St. Louis, 
Mo. 

Mr. Cha rles P. Higgins is with the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific Telegraph Company at St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Geo. W. Armstrong, formerly of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
is on the day force of the W. U. office at New Orleans. 

Mr. McLaren Campbell has left the W. U. employ at 
New Orleans, La., and proceeded to Chicago, III. 

Mr. Chas. H. H. Cottrell, the well known telegrapher, 
has accepted a position with the W. U. Co. at New Orleans, 
La. 

Mr. John W. Hayes, of Omaha, Neb., W. U. office," 
has resigned, and accepted a position with the same 
company at Salt Lake City, Utah . 

Mr. Edward G. Foote, of Memphis, Tenn., is iu the 
W. U. Office at New Orleans, La. 

Mr. Louis Klotz, of Washington, D. C, has accepted 
a position with the W. U. at Mobile, Ala. 

Mr. Robt. C. Hayes, of Cincinnati, Ohio, W. U. office,, 
has resigned to accept a similar position at Omaha, Neb. 

Mr. L. W. Bradley is with the W. U. Co. at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Mr. James Doody has accepted a position on the night 
force of the W. U, Memphis, Tenn., office, made vacant 
by the resignation of Mr. Ed. E. Foote. 

Mr. Frank Farley, a young and accomplished opera- 
tor, was in New Orleans recently. 

Mr. David R, Downer, assistant manager, New York 
Western Union telegraph office, recently acted as exami- 
ner of the graduating class of female telegraphy at the 
Cooper Institute iu this city. 

Mr. W. A. Fenn has been appointed train despateher 
for the P. R. R. at Richmond Junction, Pa. 

Mr. M. H. Bryant has resigned from the Western 
Union, Portland, Maine, office, and accepted a position as 
manager of the Atlantic and Pacific office in that 
city. 

Mr. Starr has resigned the Western Union office, 
Eastern depot, Portland, Maine, and takes a branch At- 
lantic and Pacific office in that city. 

Mr. Thos. P. Scully has accepted a position on the 
day force in the Western Union office at 197 Broadway, 
New York. 

Mr. C. F. Annett, division operator, Mountain Division 
of the U. P. R. R., is east for his health. 

Mr. L. E. C. Moore has resigned his position on the 
day force of the Philadelphia, Pa., Western Union day 
force. 



By Cable. 

cable broken. 

London, Jan. 2. — A tremendous gale has been raging 
on the Atlantic coast of France. One of the telegraph 
cables between France and England has parted. 



Another Reduction of Telegraph Rates. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company cele- 
brated the New Year by announcing another reduction 
of telegraph rates from New York to principal points 
west. The following announcement has boon furnished 
for publication : 

" During the year 187G the Atlantic and Pacific Tele- 
graph Company has constructed about 1,000 milos of 
polo line and 3,000 miles of wire lino. It has also ob j 
tained, through purchase or lease, over 000 miles of lino 
and niado contracts of connection covering more than 
5,000 miles of additional line, thereby extending its system 
from about 15,000 miles of polo lino and .'50,000 miles of* 
wire lino, at the close of last year, to approximately 
18,000 miles of pole line and 40,000 milos of wire line at 
the close of 187G. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 6, 1817. 



The most recent important connection made is with the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, enabling the Atlantic 
and Pacific Telegraph Company to exchange business 
with all Pennsylvania Railroad stations. 

With all these extensions, most of which have been 
but recently completed, and with the greatly improved 
condition of its facilities, the Atlantic and Pacific Tele- 
graph Company is prepared to undertake a much larger 
service than has hitherto been possible. 

In recognition of the large patronage that has been 
accorded us, and for the purpose of fully occupying our 
facilities, the following additional reductions of rate be- 
tween New Yerk and the principal cities named below 
will take effect on and after January 1, 1877; a propor- 
tionate reduction being made interchangeably between 
all the points indicated, and between Boston and Port- 
land and the Western cities: 

New York to Chicago, 111., 50 cents; to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 50 cents; to Cleveland, Ohio, 50 cents; to Colum- 
bus, Ohio, 50 cents; to Davonport, Iowa, 75 cents; to 
Detroit, Mich., 50 cents; to Indianapolis, Ind., 60 cents; 
to Louisville, Ky., 60 cents; to Peoria, 111., 75 cents; to 
Milwaukee, Wis., 75 cents; to St. Louis, Mo., 75 cents; 
to Toledo, Ohio, 50 cents; to Wheeling, West Va., 50 
cents. Respectfully yours, 

Thomas T. Eckert, PresidenV' 



A Great Convenience. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company have re- 
cently established offices, by exclusive arrangement with 
the Union Ferry Company, at the ferry stations in Brook- 
lyn and New York, of the South, Wall street, and Pul- 
ton ferries. Great difficulty is at times experienced by 
the ferry boats crossing the river from ice, and at such 
times this arrangement proves a great convenience to the 
delayed passengers On Wednesday morning last the 
operation of the ferries was suspended for several hours 
by the accumulation of ice in the river, and their offices 
were largely patronized by passengers prevented from 
reaching tne city or keeping appointments previously 
made. 



The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company. 

The new lines of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Company, establishing communication from Boston, Mass., 
to Montreal, Canada, were completed on Monday last. At 
Montreal connection is made with the Dominion Tele- 
graph Company. 

This line ruus from Boston via Lowell, Nashua, Man- 
chester, Concord, Bristol, Rumuey,Wells River, St. Johns- 
bury, Johnson, Swanton, Bedford, to Montreal. 

At Lowell a connection is made with the Vermont 
Central Telegraph Company, which has some twenty-five 
offices. 



Proposed Opposition to the Gold and Stock 
Telegraph Company. 

Mr. Chakles J. Wiley has had on exhibition, in the 
lobby of the New York Stock Exchange, a new instru- 
ment for the transmission of quotations of stocks, etc., to 
brokers and others. 

It is proposed to organize a new company, to be com- 
posed mainly of the brokers themselves, with a capital of 
$100,000 to introduce their instruments in competition 
with the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company. Mr. 
Wiley is confident that his instrument does not infringe 
upon the patents of others, and it is claimed that the 
quotationswill.be furnished by the new company at a 
considerable reduction from present charges. 



The Manhattan and Domestic Telegraph 
Companies. 

Mr. Wm. Whitlock has resigned the secretaryship of 
the Manhattan and Domestic Telegraph Companies, and 
Mr. Wm. Hadden has been elected to both positions. 
»-»-♦ 

The District Telegraph. 

The District Telegraph has been introduced at Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin, by the Milwaukee District Telegraph 
Company, of which Mr. E. W.Farnham is manager. The 
general office of the company is at 95 Michigan street. 
The company has made arrangements to ' connect with 
the Atlantic and Pacific Company for the transmission of 
messages to all the principal points in the United States 
and Canada, and by the Direct United States Cable to 
Europe. 

Mr. John B. Norris, President of the American District 
Telegraph Company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., reports to the 
stockholders for the fiscal year ending Oct. 31st, 1876, 
that although the company has unavoidably been affected 
by the general depression in business during the past 
year, the results of the business show no loss, but, on the 
contrary, what seems to him a very gratifying gain. 



Not enough subscribers having been obtained in the 
Eastern District to warrant opening an office there, and 
incurring the necessary expense, the project has been 
postponed for the present, the policy of the company for 
the past year having been rather to get out of debt than 
to incur new obligations. 

There have been established in the city four districts, 
with an office in each. 

The total earnings of the company in 1876 were 
$47,057.50— an increase of $1,879.36 over the preceding 
year. The operating expenses were $38,838.34 — a de- 
crease of $247.86. The net earnings were $8,219.16 — 
an increase of $2,127.22. The number of instruments 
in circuit is 1,026 — an increase of 87 ; number of calls 
answered, 63,176 — an increase of 517 ; number of mes- 
sengers employed, 40; policemen in the employ of the 
company, 27 ; police calls answered, 862. 



Proceediugs in Congress on the Telegraph Con- 
tempt Cases. 

In the Senate, on Wednesday, at the expiration of the 
morning hour, Mr. Morton, from the Committee on Privi- 
leges and Elections, submitted a report that William M. 
Turner, manager of the Western Union Telegraph office 
at Jacksonville, Oregon, had refused to answer certain 
questions put tc him by the committee, on the ground 
that he could not divulge the business of the company; 
also, a resolution declaring that Mr. Turner is in duty 
bound to answer questions, and cannot refuse to do so 
by virtue of his official connection with the Western 
Union Telegraph Company. Ordered to be printed. 

Mr. Morton gave notice that he would call the resolu- 
tion up for action on Thursday. 

In the House of Representatives the Sergeant-at-Arms, 
by the direction of the Speaker, presented at the bar of 
the House Mr. E. W. Barnes, the New Orleans manager 
of the Western Union Telegraph Company, in custody 
as a recusant witness, he having refused to produce be- 
fore the House Investigating Committee certain tele- 
graphic despatches passing through that office. 

A letter having been read from Messrs. Lowery & 
Ashton, counsel, asking a postponement of the hearing 
till Friday next, a resolution to that effect was offered 
by Mr. Knott, of Kentucky, and it was adopted. Mr. 
Barnes was thereupon remitted to the charge of the 
Sergeant-at-Arms. 



The Western Telegraph Company. 

The Western Telegraph Company owns a line from 
Baltimore via Wheeling, W Va., to Chicago. This line 
is leased to the Western Union Telegraph Company. It 
has been proposed to organize another company to take 
over the property and franchises of the present company, 
under the laws of Maryland. On Thursday, Dec. 28th, 
a meeting of the directors was held in Baltimore, which 
was attended by Messrs. Wm. Orton, Cambridge Livings- 
ton, and W. H. Abel, representing the interests of the 
Western Union Company, to take the necessary steps for 
the reorganzation of the company. 

Mr. Wm. Sprigg,of Alleghany County, Md., for himself 
and" such other stockholders as may unite with him, ap- 
plied for an injunction against such proposed action. He 
alleges that the formation of a new company as proposed 
is without bis consent as a stockholder of the Western 
Telegraph Company, and will compel him to assume new 
obligations under a new charter of which he knows 
nothing. He therefore asks the Court to grant an injunc- 
tion lorbidding William Orton and others from- surren- 
dering the rignts of said Western Telegraph Company or 
the merging of the same into a new company. 

Judge Pinckney granted an order, returnable on the 

third instant, to show cause why such injunction should 

not be granted. 

» • » 

New York Western Union Notes. 

Forbidden Fruit is what they now call the different 
brands of fine cut, navy plug, etc., here. Our French ar- 
tist when in need of a chew ai ways says, " Avez vousle 
fruit defendu V and provided the boss isn't round receives 
it with the choicest of Italian, " Eier bin ich." 

It is bad enough to have to send that snake copy when 
every break gives less chance on eternal life, but when 
one comts to the check and finds it " Late D. H.," de- 
spair is written on the face of the transmitter. What 
does it mean ? Is the sender an ex-freeman ? or is it 
too late in the year for dead heads? or is*it 

A light strikes upon his shattered senses. It is 1 It is 1 1 
Yes, yes! 58. 

For the first time on record big Steve has drawn a 
lucky number and got off Christmas. If he goes on in 
this way he will not need Gillie's help to put him on 
the pinacle of fame and fortune. 

Billy Lewis has returned from the South. Hope he 
will be able to get one of the three vacancies on the night 
force, as he is a popular comrade and has been much 
missed from among us. 



Night City Line Chief Brennan has been drawing a 
series of artistic maps of the wires under his charge. It 
is the intention to reduce them all to their minimum 
length by cross cuts over housetops, shortening unneces- 
sary lengths of loops, etc. 

The 12 o'clock force has been increased on the Sunday 
list for night city service to five instead of one man and 
a detail as formerly. The wires used being: 12, NF, FA, 
and B ; 4, MS and BY ; 3, SD, AD and HB ; 12, SN and 
H; 27, WX, UD, P and WD ; with 26, 10, 8,' 9 and the 
combinations 43, 44 and 45 for extras. 

The city department, once the butt of fraternal jokes, 
with many allusions to plugs and snides, has now be- 
come one of the great divisions. Four years ago only 
eight men were employed at night, and only one after 
ten o'clock, Fifth Avenue Hotel being the only office open 
after that time, and that only until twelve. Now Dearly 
thirty wires are worked steadily up to nine o'clock, eight 
till midnight, and three between twelve and eight o'clock 
A. m. ; with nine branch offices within city limits where 
the light is never dim. Mr. Breunan may well be proud 
of its growth and the honor given his circuits by placing 
only first class, picked men under his charge. It is to be 
hoped that the increased business and increased responsi- 
bilities given to the chief will sow the seeds for benefits 
towards certain prospective " plethoric pocketbooks." 

Mr. Chief Kennedy was presented at Christmas with 
an elegaut diamond pin in a box, but when the box was 
opened, the blackbird pie of Mother Goose memory, 
a dime and a pin, were disclosed — good for a bottle of 
Bass' ale. 

Mr. Ed Gordon, after a prolonged absence on account 
of sickness, now shows his smiling face again in our 
midst. 

Skoops have not been the order of the day lately, and 
even honest old Abe Locke used to weaken on them a 
few weeks before his departure for bleeding Kansas. 
Most of the night men make between 60 and 70 hours 
extra every month on their own time, and the more in- 
dustrious ones rnn up to 80 and 90 — two o'clock being a 
usual hour lor the first men to get off, and the last batch 
often stay until the break of day. The K. P's., i. e., the 
" Knight Phorse," need not complain of hard times just 
yet, if the amount of work is aDy gauge. 



Quotations of Telegraph Stocks at N. Y. Stock 
Exchange, 

Showing Lowest and Highest Prices each day during week. 

Reported for The Telegrapher by Messrs. Hotchkiss & 

Burnham, Commission Stock Brokers, No. 36 Broad street. 



Dec. 


Western 
Union. 


Atl. and 
Pac. 


Amer. 
Dist. 


Gold and 
Stock. 


28 
29 

30 

Jany. 
2 

3 


n%... 7iy 2 

71 ... 71J4 

70% ... 7\y s 
71 ... 71% 
7IJ4 ... 72 .y 


15^ ... 15 
15 ... 15 

UVz ... 15 


Bid. Asked. 


Bid. Askea 



Gold and Stock and American District nothing doing. 



Born. 

Gentry.— To W. T. Gentry, of the Wilmington, N. C. 
Western Union office, a boy, ten pounds— the first. 



THE HIGHEST AND ONLY PREMIUM 
AWARDED. 




PARTR1CK & CARTER, 
38 South Fourth Street, Philade1phia,[Pa., 

have received the highest and only Premium and Diploma 
awarded at the late Centennial Exhibition, upon their Cham- 
pion Learner's Apparatus, Giant Sounders and all Morse 
Telegraph Instruments. 

These goods are warranted better than the best and cheaper 
than the cheapest. 

Every description of Telegraph and Electrical Instruments 
and supplies constantly on hand. 

SEND FOR PRICE LISTS, CARDS AND CIRCULARS. 
Agent for California, 

GEO. POMEROY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Jan. 6. 1871] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



in 



XYTESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
220 KINZIE STREET, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

Cash Capital and Surplus, $200,000 00. 

MANUFACTURERS AND JOBBERS 



ELECTRICAL 

AND 

Telepajlic Instruments ana 1 Sillies. 

ANSON STAGER, 

President. 

ENOS M. BARTON, 

Secretary 
ELISHA GRAY, 

Electrician. 

GEO. H. BLISS, 

General Agent. 



BOSTON AGENCY, 

267 Washington. Street. 

PHILADELPHIA AGENCY, 

120% Chestnut Street. 

CINCINNATI AGENCY, 

166 Mace Street. 



qpHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PEOQRESS. 
DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OP THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 
of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 
Published every Saturday 



A. 



G. DAY, 



MANUFACTURER OF 



KERITE INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRE 
AND CABLES. 



No. 



20 CORTLANDT STREET (ROOM 5), 

NEW YORK. 



MUTUAL CONTRIBUTION PLAN OF 
INSURANCE, 

AT ACTUAL COST. 

PROTECTION LIFE INSURANCE CO., 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Charter perpetual. Capital, $200,000. $100,000 deposited with 
State Treasurer for policy holders' security. 
Plan similar to Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association. 

Cost of $1,250 Policy— Age 26 to 40— First 

Tear, $31.65 or less; Second 

Year, and every Year 

thereafter, $23.85. 

Cost of carrying policy, outside of charge for expenses, 
trictly governed by actual losses experienced. 

ASSESSMENTS COLLECTED MONTHLY. 

I reduce admission fee by dividing my commission with 
Telegraphers. 

Send for circular, or apply to 

W. C. LONG-, Agent, 

47 WOODBINE PLACE (CAMPBELL PARK), 

Chicago, III. 



THIRTEENTH VOLUME. 

The THIRTEENTH VOLUME of THE TELEGRAPHER 
will commence with the number for JANUARY 6, 1877. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

is notable as the only telegraphic journal in the world which 
has been permanently established and maintained as an entirely 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 

relying exclusively upon the patronage received for its support. 
It is, and has been from the commencement of its publica- 
tion, the recognized representative of the PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHERS, and not conducted in the interest of any 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY, CLIQUE OB 
COMBINATION. 

As such it has been and will be honestly continued, so long as it 
shall receive the confidence and support of those whose interests 
it maintains, and whose cause it supports and advocates. 

It will enter upon its THIRTEENTH VOLUME with con- 
tinued excellent prospects, and its publisher couiidentlv appeals 
to the TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY of the whole" country 
to make it even more BRILLIANTLY SUCCESSFUL than it 
has been heretofore. 

Its columns are at all times open to the freest and fullest dis- 
cussion of all questions of interest and importance to the Fra- 
ternity, or the Telegraphic Art and Electrical Science in con- 
nection therewith. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 
patronage received, will be spared to improve its character and 
add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

FIRST CLASS INDEPENDENT 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON the 
AMERICAN CONTINENT. 

The popular features of the paper, which have heretofore 
secured to it the favor and approbation of those who are inter- 
ested in Electrical Science and Practical Telegraphy, will be re- 
tained, and new features introduced from time to time which 
will maintain its character and reputation, and render it more 
valuable and desirable to those for whom it is prepared. 

\V hile due attention will continue to be paid to Scientific Elec- 
trical Developments and Practical Improvements in Telegraphy, 
it will be made popular and interesting by Sketches, Tales and 
Original Articles, which will be furnished exclusively for its 
columns by able writers. 

One specialty which renders it valuable is the complete sum- 
mary of information which is given in its columns relative to 
telegraphs, telegraphic progress, and telegraphers throughout 
the world, and which makes each volume a 

FULL AND ACCURATE HISTORY 
of the telegraphs for the year. 




LECLANCHE 
BATTERY. 



THE WORLD RENOWNED 



en Circuit Battery 



-YniMfiai* 



JiO ACJDS ! 

NO SULPHATE OF COPPER! 

DOES XOT FREEZE ? 

Will last from sixmonths to several 
years Without Renewal. 



IS ESPECIALLY ADAPTED to Electric Bells, Hotel and 
House Annunciators, Burglar Alarms, Medical Apparatus and 
all kinds of Open Circuit Work. Address, 

LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 

No. 40 West 18th Street, or 
L. G. TILLOTSON:& CO., Sole Agents, 

8SD9y Street, New York. 



MANUFACTORY, 



SEYMOUR, CONN. 



130 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



Terms of Subscription. 

Invariably in Advance. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 

Dominion of Canada. 

Subscriptions may commence at any time. 

Rates of Advertising. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil), each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

One Column, " " 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and otlieis are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will bo allowed Twenty per Cent. 
Commissions in lien of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for four Sub- 
scribers at the regular price of subscription, $2 per year, will be 
entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
change in their addrbs9, mlfst always send their old 

AS WELL AS THEIR NEW ADDRESS. 

Remittances lor subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
Office order or registered letter, at tue risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed lor money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reason- 
able rates ; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Ail communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box^503),|NEW YORK. 



The Di-electrical properties of Kerite have been tested in 
every conceivable manner during the last few years, and its 
superiority over all other kinds of insulation fully demon- 
strated. 

Its durability has been proved by constant exposure to the 
sun and atmospheric changes of the thousands of miles of 
covered wire in use by the Fire Alarm and Telegraph Com- 
panies in many of the principal cities of the country. It has 
been largely used in the City of New York, under all condi- 
tions and exposures, lor the last nine years, and at the pres- 
ent time its resistance is as great as when first exposed. 

The facts are now fully established that Kerite is not inju 
riously affected by the extremes of heat and cold experienced 
in any climate, nor by length of exposure in the atmosphere. 
It will endure long continued heat below 200° Fahrenheit, 
while for short intervals it may be subjected to 250 or 300° ; 
and it may be safely immersed in boiling water. 

The action of water, salt or fresh, not only protects all its 
qualities, but very much improves its insulation. 
It is also unchanged by being placed in the ground. 
Any corrosive elements in the earth do not act upon it, nor 
is it injured by the roots of plants, which soon destroy gutta 
percha. 

Acids act very slowly upon it, and then only to the extent of 
oxydizing the surface. 

It will bear exposure to hot, strong solutions of alkalies with- 
out injury. 

Mineral oils and illuminating gas, so far as known, do not 
produce any serious effect upon it. 
Exposure in a city gas pipe has not injured it. 
Thorough experiments have shown that it does not suffer in- 
jury by the most destructive insects of land or water. 

Samples of the core or insulated conductor of Kerite cables 
have for a long period been laid in the Caribbean Sea, yet the 
" teredo," which would have speedily destroyed other cables 
thus exposed, has left these entirely unharmed. And experi- 
mental lines on the Isthmus have been equally exempt from the 
ravages of the white ant, which destroys wood telegraph poles 
so rapidly that iron poles have been substituted. 

The same qualities which render it so indestructible by all 
corrosive agents, insure its durability for an indefinite period in 
all climates. 

Neither gutta percha nor vulcanized india rubber will bear 
storage in tropical climates without r.'.pid deterioration, and 
undergoing chemical changes, which destroy their essential 
qualities, while under the same conditions the Kerite insulation 
is not changed in any respect. 

The Kerite covered wire is used almost exclusively by the 
United States Navy Department in the torpedo experiments 
which have been go.ng on during the past three years. Prof. 
Farmer, the Government Instructor, says of it : " It fulfils the 
conditions required in the torpedo service belter than any insu 
lator with which I am acquainted." 

John L. Lay, Esq., the inventor of the famous torpedo bearing 
his name, says that he thoroughly tested the Kerite cable in this 
country and also in Egypt, aiid finds it preferable to rubber or 
gutta percha, heat not affecting it, and so fur as his experience 
goes, it is proof against the " teredo." 

Messrs. Gamewell & Co., proprietors of the American Fire 
Alarm and Police Telegraph, have used the Kerite wire for ten 
years. They say : " We have placed it in use in some sixty 
cities, extending from Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the north to 
New Orleans and San Francisco on the south and west, embrac- 
ing every variety of climate, and it has proved itself to bo, under 
all circumstances, the most reliable and indestructible insulator 
known to us for telegraphic purposes." 

The experience of other parties using the Kerite coated wire 
overhead, underground and under water, is almost precisely 
similar, and is well summarized in the following opinion of 
George B. Prescott, Esq., the Electrician of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. Mr. Prescott says : "In September, 1809, 
we pluced some of your Kerite \\ ire, unprotected by an y cover- 
ing whatever, in the tunnel under the river in Chicago, and 
have since continued its use in that exposed situation with the 
most gratifying results. A portion of tlte tunnel is very wet, 
and water, .saturated witb lime, constantly drips upon the wires, 
while in other portions they are kept alternately wet and dry, 
which is well known to be one of the severest lesls that any In- 
sulating material of an organic nature can be subjected to ; and 
yet, after the years' exposure, under I lie above conditions, the 
Kerite covering shows no signs of decay or deterioration. An 
insulating covering of india rubber or gutta percha Under a like 

exposure, would have been destroyed in much less time." 



For further particulars address 



A. G. DAY, 

1JJO lli«:i<lway, Now V111*. 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 6, 1S17. 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 



&AMSWELL & <p0., Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

J. W. STOVER, 

General Agent and Superintendent 

L. B. F IEMAN, Chicago, II!., 

General Agent for the West and North- West 
TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND MANTJF'O CO., Cleveland, Ohio, 
Special Agents for the Middle States 
J. R. DOWELL, Richmond, Vs., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina, 
J, A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 
L. M. MONROE, New Canaan, Conn, , 

Specia; Agent for New England 
ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO, 
San Francisco, Gal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada, 

THIS S2B1EM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL, OFFICE, 

OB 

UPON THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

is now In operation in the following Cities, to which referenoeie 

made lor evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



Albany, N. X., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn., 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimores Md., 
Chicago, 111., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Oharlestown, Mass., 
Chelsea, Mass., 
Covington, Ky. s 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
PallRiver, Mass., 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Fond du Lac, Wis., 
Harrisburg, Penn., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Halifax, N. S., 
Hyde Park, 111., 
Indianapolis, Ind., 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Kalamazoo, Mich., 
Lansingburg, N. Y., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Manchester, N. H., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 
Minneopolis, Minn., 
New York City, 



New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
•Nashville, Tenn., 
Newton, Mass., 
Newport, Ky., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa. s 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Portland, Oregon. 
PatarKon, N. J., 
Puwtucket, R. I„ 
Quebec, L. (J., 
Reading, Pa., 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va.,. 
St. Louis, Mo., 
St. John, N. B., 
St. Paul, Minn., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Gal., 
Savannah, Ga., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Somerville, Miss. , 
Terre Haute, Ind., 
Troy, N. X., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Ganada, 
West Roxbury, Mass., 
Washington, D. 0., 
Worcester, Maes. 



The Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Firs Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABB, 

First The Automatic Repeater, through which the 

apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constant per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second Tlie Automatic Signal Boies. 

Third— Til® Electro-Mechanical Bell StriJters, 
adapted to produce the full tone of the largestchurch or tower 

bell J. 
Fourth The S31ectro=aieclia*ilcal Gong Striker, 

far hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 

thefLe Is instantaneously communicated to the members of 

each fire company. 

These Features combined form, the 

Only PERFECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 
IN THE WORLD. 
It is a suffloient vindication of the olaims whloh are rusde by 
t|^e Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical nse, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few Instance- fin which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEWELL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER & CHAINING PATENTS, one, of the most 
important of which has just been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense cr effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now oovered by 
MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietors have 
adopted and introduced is th9 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM. 

the Introduction and operation of which involves so little ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 
The American System of 

FIRE ALAEM AND POLICE TELEGEAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OB EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 
EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 
of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through th» genera' adoption of this sjstem, throughout the 
UNITED STATES snd the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, thebh 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing ill in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, an & 
their e forts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm anrt Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as s^ov^, 



END FOR CATALOGUE. 

LOW PRICES AND 20 PER CENT. DISCOUNT. 

WATTS AND COMPANY, 

BALTIMORE, MD., 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Telegraph and Electrical Material 

AND 

SUPPLIES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

including first class Morse Instruments of all styles and designs. 

Best LINE WIRE in the country. Office and Magnet Wire. 

Insulators of every kind, including our NEW PORCELAIN 
INSULATORS. 

Ourbeautiful and effective MAIN LINE SOUNDER is still the 
best in use. Price (key on base), $22.50. 

Our POCKET RELAY is the best and cheapest made. Price 
$16.00. 

We keep in Stock a full line of American District material at 
prices that defy competition. Our new 

SELF-STARTING AND STOPPING REGISTER. 

BATTERY MATERIAL of every kind, including our cele- 
brated 

BALTIMORE BATTERY, 

Electric Bells, Annunciators for Hotels and Private Houses, 
Burglar Alarms. 

LEARNERS' INSTRUMENTS, 

FOB SCHOOLS, SHORT LINES AND STUDENTS 

No. 1. Outfit complete $8.00 

Key and Sounder 6.75 

Batter}', per cell 1.25 

No. 2. Outfit complete 6.00 

Key and Sounder 5. 00 

Battery, per cell 1.00 

When complete set purchased, Wire and Chemicals and Book 
of Instructions are included. Special quotations for large 
ouantities or schools. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 

just published. Contains useful knowledge for telegraphers 
and those who contemplate purchasing, with a reduced price list 
from which we will, till further notice, allow a discount Of 20 
per cent, on instruments when sent C. O. D., or when cash ac- 
companies order. 

THE TELEGRAPHERS' MUTUAL 
BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

Established October 22, 1867. 

ITS OBJECT IS TO AID THE FAMILIES OF 
DECEASED MEMBERS, 

BY PAYMENT TO THE HEIRS OF $1,000. 

Any person who is, or who has been employed in telegraph 
service in any capacity, may become a member of this Associa- 
tion upon giving proof of good health and habits and payment 
of the required fees. 

INITIATION FEE, $2.00. 

Payments required : One Dollar upon the Death 
of each Member. 

Application blanks, copies of the By-Laws and other informa- 
tion furnished upon application to the Secretary, or any of the 
Agents. 

The attention of former members of the Association is called 
to the foHowing resolution, passed at the last Annual Meeting 
of the Association : 

Resolved, Thai 'delinquent members shall be eligible to renewed 
membership on payment of back dues to an amount not exceed- 
ing five dollars, and, without further initiation fee. 

W. HOLMES, Secretary. J. D. REID, Treasurer. 

Box 3175, New York. 

N. B.— Members will please note change in number of Post 
Office Box. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic Views of the Operating Room 
and Switch of the New York Office have been taken and will be 
sold for the benefit of .the Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation. 

REDUCED PRICES AS FOLLOWS : 

Operating Room, 10x14 inches $1 25 

" " 8x10 " 75 

Switch, 8x10 75 

Stereoscopic' Views. 

Operating Room , 35 

Switch .' 35 

Address orders for any of the above to the Secretary of the 
Association. 



Jan. 13, 1817] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



The Telegrapher 

A Journal of 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. N. 














SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 13, 1871. 




VOL 


. XIII. 


WHOLE No. 


548 



"His Nibs." 

.A Character Sketch. 

By M. O'Re anon. 

CHAPTER I. 

" His Nibs " was all that the name implies — if it im- 
plies anything particular — a queer sort of a being, not 
altogether bereft of common sense, nor possessing any 
too much of that natural instinct which tells man, and 
even beast, what danger is, and where and when to 
avoid it. "His Nibs" belonged to that class of human- 
ity who live only in the present, and who allow matters 
to move along in their regular order without an effort to 
change them, influenced for the moment only by the 
strongest wind, whether it blow good or evil, and profit- 
ing nothing by the teachings of experience. That the 
burnt child dreads the fire may be very true, but in the 
case of " His Nibs " it might be called a total failure. 

From whence he came could only be guessed by his 
confiding manner and general show of simplicity. He 
made no pretensions, and had nothing to boast of except 
a well lined purse and .a heart bursting with liberality, 
ever ready to respond to all that the occasion demanded. 
It is needless to say he was warmly welcomed by those 
who were always gladly willing to shake the open hand 
of what they were pleased to term a " big sucker," and 
among such it was "His Nibs'" great misfortune to 
make his debut in metropolitan life. Another feature 
about " His Nibs," that plainly told the tale of his origin, 
was his ungainly form, which moved awkwardly upon a 
pair of monstrous feet, giving him an appearance alto-- 
gether inviting to the practised eye of the wary sharper. 

The entree of this unsophisticated individual into the 
already large circle of thoroughbreds was hailed with great 
delight, especially by " Funny Jim " and " Tippling 
Tom," the leaders of the " gang," who immediately in- 
stalled themselves as his chaperones ; attending him on 
all occasions, and offering their valuable (?) services as 
his advisers and counsellors wherever the opportunity 
offered. 

A word regarding these latter personages might not be 
out of place. They were what are commonly kuown as 
" Old Timers," having worked under every superintendent 
on the Continent of America, and dropped gradually from 
the highest to the lowest grade of the telegraph business, 
morally and financially. Though wholly different in 
many respects, they were in the main birds of a feather. 
Of the two "-Funny Jim " was by far the smarter, and 
more apt to succeed in gaining the confidence and friend- 
ship of the new comer. His manner was such as would 
lead the uninitiated to believe him solid all the way 
through, while his pal, "Tippling Tom," acted what he 
really was, a sort of accomplice, without brains enough 
to create a practical joke, but plenty of meanness and 
want of principle to carry it to an extreme. Surrounded 
by a large circle of admiring brethren, who applauded 
their every effort to create fun at any one's expense, 
these two brilliant lights of the bar found in " His Nibs " 
a good subject for their heartless jokes and nonsensical 
localisms. In the office and out of it he was made the 
target at which the gun loaded by " Funny Jim " was 
fired by " Tippling Tom." Of course he boarded at the 
same house with them, drank at the same bar, smoked 
and chewed the same kind of tobacco, and enjoyed the 
same society, in consideration of which he was only ex- 
pected to and did foot the whole bill; for previous to his 
coming they boarded uo place in particular; smoked and 
chewed somebody else's tobacco ; drank on a stand up, 
and enjoyed the society of anybody and everybody. 

The first night " His Nibs " arrived in town was spent 
rather quietly by himself; knowing nobody he was satis- 
fied with a survey of the buildings in the immediate vicin- 
ity of his hotel, and not daring to trustjhimsolf too far up 
or down town, lest he should be unable to find his way 
back, and fearful of falling into the many traps and 
snares of a great city, about which he had probably been 
cautioned. His duties at the office on the first day 
brought him into contact several times with " Funny 
Jim," who gave him an invitation to go out and see the 
town after supper, which ho accepted. Accordingly that 



evening, in company with " Tippling Tom," they visited 
a popular place of amusement, and after the show pro- 
ceeded to a favorite resort, where the gang was found at 
the usual quiet game of poker. The introduction gone 
through with, " His Nibs," by direction of " Funny Jim," 
invited all hands to the bar, where the convivial glass 
was indulged in several times, after which " Tippling 
Tom," conceiving 'twould be a grand scheme to rope the 
fledgeling in, proposed a big game of poker, and all sat 
down. Then began the first of the series of convivials 
that lasted night after night until " His Nibs," funds 
were exhausted, and, finally, his job lost. 



CHAPTER II. 

For six months our rural hero enjoyed all the pleasures 
to be found in and around a great city. He had been all 
through the whole thing, and considered himself on equal 
footing with those who had taught him the ropes. 

He had learned to place implicit confidence in all that 
"Funny Jim " said, accepting him as superior authority 
in all matters touching even his personal affairs, whilst 
on the other hand experience had taught him to despise 
the very shadow of his friend's right bower, "Tippling 
Tom," whom he had had the good fortune to catch at 
several petty meannesses, and whose Bible oath he would 
not accept, even in the most trivial matters. As before 
stated, " His Nibs " had large feet, and consequently 
wore a rather large shoe. The size of his pedal extremi- 
ties had been made the subject of remark upon several 
occasions, and it had been determined to use this freak 
of nature as material for a practical joke ; accordingly, 
one morning early, whilst yet our rustic friend slum- 
bered, "Tippling Tom," by direction of "Funny Jim," 
quietly entered his apartment and abstracted the im- 
mense moccasins, brought them up to a photographer's 

on L street, and had them photographed, directing 

the artist to place a copy in the show case outside, which 
was done. The shoes were replaced at the bedside of 
their still sleeping owner, and "Tippling Torn," having 
hung another copy of them in the parlor, proceeded to 
report his success to " Funny Jim." That afternoon " His 

Nibs" happened to saunter up L street in search 

of a new shirt, when his eye chanced to light ou the 
photographic curiosity which had been attracting the 
attention of passers by all day. Returning home he met 
"Funny Jim," and immediately proceeded to relate all 
he had seen, adding, " I tell ye, Rocks, don't you look at 
mine agin till ye see them up there. They're the wust I 
ever saw." " Funny Jim " promised he would talce them 
in the first chance he got, and gave "His Nibs " an in- 
vitation to the parlor for the evening, stating that he 
wished to introduce him to some nic9 young ladies. As 
agreed, he entered the parlor immediately after tea, where 
he found the party, including "Tippling Tom," assem- 
bled. The female element had been posted regarding 
the nature of the beast, being given to understand that 
he was in the habit of giving vent to his feelings in forci- 
ble language, regardless of all surroundings, especially 
when forced to do so ; therefore they were enjoined not 
to pay attention to anything he might say on the present 
occasion, as his presence was required more to create 
merriment at his expense than for any brilliancy it might 
lend to the company present. Gracefully our blushing 
hero bent his awkward frame at each introduction until 
all had the pleasure of the acquaintance of " His Nibs." 
As Mr. Nibs timidly took a seat in the corner, and with 
an occasional quick glance at this thing and that, as 
though painfully struggling to dispose of one eye and 
then the other, and finally resting both with a look of 
startling earnestness upon the photograph on the wall, 
he sank into an apparently easy position. Scarcely had 
"His Nibs" assumed the attitude when "Funny Jim," 
winking a cue to the rest, asked him what he thought of 
the picture. 

" What picture?" inquired Nibs. 

" Why," said Jim, " the one you're looking at. I was 

up on L street this afternoon and bought that. It's 

the photograph of the big shoes." 

"Oh, yes!" hastily rejoined Nibs, as Jim handed him 

the picture. "They're fearful, ain't they? If I " 

And more closely scrutinizing the photo, he discovered a 
patch on the toe which corresponded exactly with one 
that decorated the left shoe of his own foot. Jumping 
up he exclaimed, indignantly, that the likeness had 
been taken from his own shoes, and immediately set upon 
" Tippling Tom," accusing him of being the author of 
the trick, and berating him with the strongest words in 
the vocabulary — and, indeed, had it not been for the- 
timely interference of "Funny Jim," "Tippling Tom" 
would have paid dearly for his little joke, as ho called it. 
The ladies, unable to stand the pressure of the scene 
upon their delicate nerves, had flown from the apart- 
ment, and our injured hero, pacified at last, and seeming- 
ly satisfied with Jim's explanation of the affair, left the 
room in company with that worthy. 



One morning poor Nibs found himself standing alone 
on a street corner, utterly penniless, out of a situation, 
and rather undecided as to what ho should do. lie 



thought of home, but how could he face it in his present 
condition, after the many flattering letters he had written 
the loved ones of his great success I Of what use to him 
now were those upon whom he had wasted all bis earn- 
ings, among whom hours that might have been profitably 
employed were thrown away? He could not ask that 
gruff old sot of a manager to overlook the offence for 
which he had forfeited his position ; business was too 
dull, and second class labor, and first class, too, could 
very easily be obtained; in fact, the force was already 
too large, and every opportunity to reduce it was being 
seized. For fully an hour he stood there, despondency 
pictured on every feature of his not very intelligent coun- 
tenance, waiting, for what he knew not. At last he espied 
the familiar form of " Funny Jim " coming up the street. 
Jim was going for a glass of beer and some free lunch 
around the corner. 

" Hello, Nibs," says he, " are you going up to see the 
old man?" 

" I don't know what I'm going to do, Jim," he replied; 
" I'm all broke up, and I don't think I'll make much by 
going to see him, any way." 

'■ Oh," said Jim, " that won't do ; go up and put on the 
gloves with him, any how. He's got to give you a recom- 
mendation, and you'll strike a job somewhere." 

" But I ain't got a sou," said Nibs; " how'll I get out 
of town ?" 

" Why, spar out," replied Jim, with an air of confidence 
that led Nibs to believe the thing could be accomplished 
without any trouble. But Jim meant tongue muscle, and 
not after the manner of the pugilistic arena ; so poor 
Nibs, relying upon what strength he had left, determined, 
in case he failed to be reinstated at the office, to board 
the first train, for where he didn't care, and lick all hands 
for a ride or die in the attempt to get away from the 
scenes of his first misfortunes ; nor did " Funny Jim " 
attempt to define his brilliant little bit of slang, but smil- 
ing in his sleeve at the earnest simplicity of the "gawk," 
as he called him, invited him around the corner to have 
a beer and talk the matter over. 

In the course of the afternoon his Nibs dropped in to 
see the manager, but only succeeded in obtaining a recom- 
mendation, which document had all the appearance of an 
army discharge. Folding it up carefully, he deposited it 
in the left pocket of his vest, and bidding the boss good 
day, quietly slipped out and started for the nearest depot, 
to spar his way out of town. Reaching there in due time, 
he noticed a door ou his left as he went in, with the sign 
"Despatcher" on it. He opened it, and walking up to 
the little window, he peered in. 

" Well," said a smiling, good natured looking chap, with 
his hair parted in the middle, " what can we do for you ?" 
"What time does the next train leave?" inquired 
Nibs. 

"For where?" asked the pleasant young fellow out- 
side, coming up to the window. 

" Well," said Nibs, "anywhere. I'll tell you — I'm a 
telegraph operator, and I want to get out of town. I'm 
right on the spar, too, but I don't want to do any more 
fighting than I can help. Now, you point out the puniest 
conductor that runs on this road and I'll go with him. If 
he goes to put me off, it'll be the worst for him. I ain't 
quarrelsome, but I'm bad when you wake me up, for 
when I get mad I get sleepy. Now you understand me, 
and if you're a friend to the ' boys ' you'll help me out." 

The genial chap inside smiled more, and said he thought 
he could do something better for " His Nibs." " Would 
you like a job on the road V he asked. 

"His Nibs' " spirit rose at the prospect. " Yes," he 
replied ; " I'll go to work anywhere. Do you want an 
operator in this office?" 

" Not exactly, but we want a night man at the junc- 
tion, about five miles out. Forty dollars a month — but 
that's better than nothing. Come inside," he added, un- 
locking the door and admitting him. 

" His Nibs" sat down, and resting his fingers on the 
nearest key, proceeded to relate his experience. After 
telling how he had been through the mill, he expressed 
the opinion that some out of the way place like the Junc- 
tion would just suit him, for there he could brace up and 
replenish his exhausted "kick;" in other words, save lots 
of money ou forty dollars a month. After the usual 
trial, etc., ho was engaged, and everything being 
arranged, he started for the Junction, and commenced 
work that night. Fortune had smiled upon him once 
more, and he was happy. Night after night he passed 
the long weary hours in that littlo box, with no com- 
panion but the grim looking old switch tender, who came 
in every now and then to nap behind tlio stove. 

Barney, the switcli tender, was not exactly disagreea- 
ble in his disposition, but in his manner was so reserved 
as not to admit of the slightest familiarity at first sight. 
The responsibility of his position mado him dignified. 
For nearly a week he moved about tho shanty, quietly 
attending to his duties, without advancing any opinions 
upon any subject, or betraying any desire to converse on 
any matter not pertaining to them. But ho was not 
asleep all the;* time. He " wuz wundheriiH fat soort iv a 
chap- lh' new o'pperatur wus." Closely he scrutinized 
" His Nibs " without the knowlodgo of the latter, until 



8 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 13, 1817. 



he became satisfied the new opperatur wasn't a bad kind 
iv a lad, but mebbe a little soft. 

" Lukka here" said Barney to " His Nibs," one eve- 
ning, after the western bound. express had passed, " there 
wus a young fellah lukkin' fur yes a' day, so Dicky towld 
me, an' he said hus name wus 'Funny Jim,' or sumthin' 
iv that kind, an' wanted to see yes. D'ye know him ?" 

" Yes, I know him," replied " His Nibs." " He's an oper- 
ator in the city; used to work with him in the office 
there." 

" Well," said Barney, " He wants to see yez about a 
job." 

" About a job !'' exclaimed " His Nibs." " I've got a 
good enough job now. Did he say he'd be back again?" 
"Yis; he left wurd he'd be here to-morra night; but, 
begorra, between yerself an' meself, I don't loike th' luks 
iv it, an' I think ye'd betther shtop whur ye are. D'ye 
dhrink?" 

" I used to," said " His Nibs," rather surprised at the 
question. " But since I've dropped the gang I've shut 
down on it. Why do you ask me that ?" 

" Bekase," said Barney, looking cautiously about him, 
" there's a gud many mane shpies lukkin' and shmellin' 
arouu' here all th' time, an' be me sowl, av yez wur to be 
ketched wid th' shmell av it anear yez, off goes yer head. 
Bad luck ti thim ; so, av yez have auy frinds comin' to 
see yez wid th' sign av the crathur, an' thim, show thim 
the shart cut, or ye'll be put down fur their loikes" 

" Did they say ' Funny Jim ' was drunk when he was 
hereto-day?" anxionsly inquired " His Nibs." 

" Well," replied Barney, " Mebbe he wasn't shtark full, 
but from what Dicky was tellin' me he wus purty 
windy." 

The shrill whistle of an approaching engine called Bar- 
ney to his post outside, and he left " His Nibs" sitting, gaz- 
ing into the bright, cheerful fire, and trying to guess what 
could have brought " Funny Jim " out there, for he 
doubted the "job" business. The night passed away 
without any incident to break the usual monotonous 
routine, and everything moved in its regular order until 
the next evening 1 . 

When " His Nibs" came on duty he found Jim quietly 
esconced behind the stove waiting for him. They shook 
hands very cordially ; talked of the weather, the place, 
the times, and other things, but Nibs took little interest 
in auy of these topics. Finally, his eagerness getting the 
best of him, he inquired what job it was Jim came to see 
about. 

"Well, I'll tell you," said Jim, accepting a proffered 
stool. "You see the old man has been giving us all a 
deal down there about being absent, and he's cleaned out 
some of the bad ones ; now, I've made up my mind to 
brace right up and hire a sub. whenever I want to go off, 
so I thought you'd like to come in and work for me, and 
then you'd stand a show of getting back when there's a 
vacancy. Tom stands in with old Rummy now, and 
was telling me had a nice little wire, for you to work. I 
know you're solid there, for I heard the old man say one 
day he let you go to teach you a lesson. I fixed it with 
him to let you sub. for me, and came all tha way cot here 
to see you about it." 

"Well," says Nibs, "I am satisfied. What wire do 
you work now ?" 

" Oh ! the same old duplex," replied Jim, " but I'll get 
you a soft wire, where you won't have any trouble. Can 
you work for me to-morrow afternoon ?" 

"Certainly," responded "His Nibs." "I'll be down 
about one o'clock." 

All was then settled. Once more he was to occupy a 
seat in the "old place, though it would only be temporary, 
yet it might lead to a permanent reinstatement. While 
at " Jn." (" His Nibs' " office) Jim made a thorough sur- 
vey of the place, and upon examination of the locals, pro- 
nounced tli em very weak. 

( lo be continued.) 



(Bmmwtifttntt. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Promotion of Samuel J. Smith. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company is, under 
the new arrangements, already assuming the position of 
a formidable rival to the Western Union. The Atlantic 
and Pacific have extended their lines, so that any part of 
the country is now accessible at very reduced rates. The 
new year opens with the completion of former contem- 
plated schemes and the inauguration of new plans to 
make the line servicable to the whole country. This 
change extends from the office management to the pur- 
chase of new material and the extension of the lines. 
Among the changes in the office business most notable 
and commendable, because near at home with us in Chi- 
cago, is the promotion of Mr. Samuel J. Smith. He was 
formerly private secretary of Superintendent Tinker, but 
has just been appointed manager of the offices. He is 
an old servant of the company, having been connected 
with it for upward of three years. The gentleman is 
worthy of promotion, and the company can be congratu- 
lated on having such servants to select from for re- 
sponsible positions. — The Chicago Courier. 



Christmas and New Year's Festivities and Observ- 
ances.— Valuable and Complimentary Presen- 
tation to Manager Robinson. — A Visit to 
the Atlantic and Pacific Office.— New 
Arrangements and Appointments. 
—New Uniform of the Atlantic and Pacific Mes- 
sengers.— Proposed Improvements in the 
Western Union Offices, etc. 

Chicago, III., Jan'y 5. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

Since I last wrote (notwithstanding we erroneously 
date our blanks December, 1876), time in his flight has 
brought us to that period when we not only use a differ- 
ent word to designate the month, but when the right 
hand figure of the combination designating the year must 
be dropped or eradicated, and one of a higher magnitude 
take its place. A change which tells that time, in its 
ceaseless course has brought us another year nearer to 
the day when earth to us will have no pleasure, when 
the place that now knows us shall know us no more for- 
ever. Yes, Christmas with its merry greetings has gone, 
and another New Year, with its kind wishes from many 
friends, its joys, its sorrows, hopes and fears, has been 
ushered in. How swift the flight of time ! It seems but 
yesterday that it seemed an age from the Fourth of July 
until Thanksgiving; years from that until Chrismas, and 
then we thought New Year would never come. Now 
how different ; time seems too short for us to develop all 
our plans. 

Perhaps no better occasion in the year presents itself 
to cast a retrospective glance on the past, and make 
firm resolutions to do better, than at this time. Now is 
the time "to turn over a new leaf," not only metaphori- 
cally or theoretically, but praciically. 

As I look back a year, I think I can notice a decided 
change for the better among the fraternity in this section. 
I remember with regret what a number failed, a year 
ago, to be ou hand for duty Christmas and New Year's 
evenings, and also those who were absent the morn- 
ings after those noted holidays. I am happy to 
say very few indeed on account of having too merry 
a Christmas, or trying to make New Year's too happy 
a day, failed to put in an appearance at the proper hour 
this year. This is a decided improvement, and one 
which is to be attributed to the fact that a number, and 
more than a casual observer would notice, are endeavor- 
ing to lead better lives. No one thing has had so much 
to do in effecting this change than the honoring in the 
breach more than in the observance of that old and perni- 
cious habit of dealing out spirituous and malt liquors on 
holidays with a lavish hand, not over bars and in low 
groggeries. but by fair and gentle hands, by those who at 
such times should be the guardian angels rather than the 
tempters of the stronger (?) sex. 

Some attribute the absence of intoxicating liquors from the 
happy New Year refreshments this year to the fact that 
we, as well as other places, were mourning over the loss 
of some of our best citizens by the recent Ashtabula Rail- 
road accident. Whether that had anything to do with it 
or not matters but little, as long as the fact existed. 

I should like to name the many pleasant calls that were 
made, and those among our fraternity who received call- 
ers on New Year's day, but time and space would forbid 
that, even had I the names, etc., for such a rehearsal at 
hand. I suppose it will rather surprise you, and, like 
one of old, who inquired, "Can any good come out of 
Nazareth ?" you will exclaim, " Can any good come out of 
telegraphers?" when 1 tell you that I heard of several who 
denied themselves the pleasure of making friendly calls on 
New Year's day, and instead called on worthy poor peo- 
ple, distributing such partly worn clothing as they could 
obtain, and such presents to the younger portion of that 
class of the community as their small salaries would per- 
mit them to purchase ; such was, indeed, the case. Among 
the number who received telegraphers and other callers 
upon that day was Miss Hammond, sister-in-law of Mr. 
D. T. Francis, of the W. TJ. office here, assisted by the 
Misses Kelly, sisters of night manager Kelly, of the W. 
TJ. office also. The reception was held at the residence 
of Mr. Francis. The manner in which the reception was 
conducted is highly spoken of by all who called. The 
grace and dignity with which the ladies received, and 
the gentlemanly and maQly bearing of the telegraphers 
who called, were alike favorably commented upon. As 
this is the time of the year when presents are made, it 
seems the telegraphic fraternity have not been found 
wanting, either in the reception or distribution of them. 
Manager Felton, as your correspondent "Veritas," has 
notified you being among those more especially favored.. 



Mr. S. L. Robinson, the Board of Trade manager of the 
W. TJ. Company at this point, was supposed to need 
watching i and it was so well timed that he was chained to 
the spot, as were thankful thoughts linking themselves so 
closely together for utterance as to almost render the 
ready, witty tongue of " Steve" a silent member. It oc- 
curred in this wise: While Mr. Robinson and his family 
were at dinner on Christmas day a messenger called, leav- 
ing a package, which, upon being opened, contained the 
following letters and a watch and chain, the former of the 
finest Geneva movement, in heavy eighteen carat gold 
cases, and a stem winder, the chain heavy, solid gold link. 
An inscription on the inside cap of the watch case read : 
"Presented to S. L. Robinson, W. U. T. Co., by the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade, Christmas, 1876." On the outside 
cases, on the front, was the- monogram " S. L. R. ;" on 
the other side the monogram " Ex." with a hand grasping 
lightning, and the letter " N " on the wrist and forearm, 
" Ex " being the call of the office and " N " the old wire 
signal of Robinson. The value of the watch and chain is 
not less than $350. 

The following is the correspondence : 
" Testimonial to S. L. Robinson, Esq., Manager of the W. TJ. 
T. Office, Board of Trade, Chicago. 

"Christmas, 1876. 
" Dear Sir : Please accept through ' Our Mutual 
Friend ' the accompanying ' testimonial ' of our appre- 
ciation of your valuable services, rendered us for years 
past in your official capacity, as well as a memorial of 
our regard toward yourself as a gentleman of exalted 
honor and marked ability. 

" Very truly yours." 
This was signed by the President and between seventy 
and eighty firms, representing over 200 of the prominent 
members of the Board. 

The "Mutual Friend" now breaks in with the fol- 
lowing : ' 

" Christmas, 1876. 
" My Dear Friend Robinson — On behalf of the donors, 
I have the extreme pleasure of presenting you with this 
magnificent testimonial from your numerous friends of 
the Board of Trade. 

"Let me assure you it is a voluntary offering, declara- 
tive of a genuine appreciation and recognition of your 
intrinsic worth. 

" The significance of this gift will become more appar- 
ent when you consider that ' Time ' is the great enemy 
to be overcome in your profession. 

"I am confident that, being 'co^'-nizant of being 
' watched,' 1 jom will be no less ' watch 'ful in the future 
1 hours' than you have been in the past to '■face' 1 the 
'■moment '-ous responsibilities of your office. And as this 
faithful ' Ticker ' shall ' Repeat-(er) ' daily course, so will 
her owner 'second' every effort to 'adjust' and 'regu- 
late' his ' Ex '-acting duties in conformity to the various 
interests 'V trusted to his care. 

" And when the ' hand ' of ' Time' shall point 'across 
the river,' these names, like flashing 'jewels' ' crystal '- 
ized upon undying memory, will accompany you to the 
'other shore.' 

"We wish a 'Merry Christmas' and 'Happy New 
Year ' to you and yours. 

" Our Mutual Friend." 
Mr. Robinson has been manager of the W. U. Co.'s 
Board of Trade office for nearly seven years, having 
served the company faithfully for two years previous to 
his appointment to that position. Many will remember 
him as an old army telegrapher, having put in over four 
years of that kind of service. Mr. R. certainly deserves 
great credit, from the fact that, while serving his com- 
pany so faithfully, he at the same time could obtain and 
preserve the true friendship and respect which integrity 
and honesty alone can bring to such a degree as to be 
the recipient of such a valuable "Christmas present ;" aud- 
it was the much more pleasing to receive such a present, 
inasmuch as the recipient knew nothing whatever of it 
until it was received in the manner indicated, at his resi- 
dence, the affair being so quietly managed that only the 
mutual friend (Mr. Frank Richards) and those immedi- 
ately connected with it, knew anything of it; and a 
number of those who subscribed would not sign their 
names, so that the donor does not, as yet, nor never will 
know all who contributed to thus make his Christmas 
" merry." No more fitting person could have been se- 
lected as "mutual friend" than Mr. Richards, as he has 
been on the Board with Steve, first as operator, and lat- 
terly as cashier, since his appointment. 

I have for a long time been desirous of visiting the 
A. & P. main office here, but not knowing how to pro- 
ceed to gain admittance, was rather fearful lest I should 
be refused, perhaps; but, hearing that a new management 
was about to be inaugurated, and a number of changes 
had taken place, or were about taking place, I nerved 
myself .for the assanlt, and consulting my friend " De 
Courcey" as to the best method of approaching the for- 
tified position, was informed " to proceed to the third 
floor, rap on the portals of the massive doorway, aiid 
Herzog, the crook, would bid me enter." I followed his 
directions and gained an entrance. I found Mr. Sunny, 



Jan. 13, 1877.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



9 



the genial and whole-souled night manager, was off on 
a vacation to his home in Brooklyn, and Mr. Ed. Angell, 
formerly secretary to Manager Swain of the W. U. office 
here, acting as night managor. Ed. don't seem to be at 
all puffed up with pride on account of having hold of the 
reins temporarily ; but he must eat awful juicy beefsteak 
to keep up that corporation. He's the same "Ed." as 
of old. It's strongly surmised by the boys that Mr. 
Sunny will return " doubled." 

Mr. A. G. Stolbrand's health is rapidly failing, and the 
company are arranging for his transfer to a position in 
Colorado similar to the one he has here. In the mean- 
time, Mr. Samuel J. Smith, private secretary to General 
Superintendent Tinker, has been appointed acting man- 
ager of Chicago office. Mr. Smith brings with him into 
the management of the office an executive ability of 
twelve or fifteen years' training. He was in the employ 
of the W. TJ. Co. for ten years in their auditing depart- 
ment at New York, having charge of the entire accounts 
of the division, under Gen. Stager's supervision. He 
came West with E. D. L. Sweet, as his private secretary, 
having accepted that position in the spring of 1875. 

Mr. George H. Taggart, late city clerk and treasurer of 
Nashau, N. H., has been appointed private secretary to 
Gen'l Sup't Tinker, to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. 
Smith's promotion. 

Mr. Richardson, of whose future intentions I have not 
been apprised, has been superseded as chief operator by 
Mr. H. M. Scott, who is a first class electrician, having 
formerly held a similar position with the Dominion and 
Montreal Telegraph Company, of Canada; but more re- 
cently with the A. and P. in Buffalo, N. Y. I am in- 
formed he is a most efficient man, and that the appoint- 
ment is a fitting one, and a deserved compliment to Mr. 
Scott. Mr. Tom Barnard, the "old stand-by of opposition 
companies in the "West," still acts as the dispenser and 
regulator of the electric fluid ; and is always " on deck," 
to use one of his maritime expressions. To hear Tom 
talk the two or three different foreign languages he is 
master of, one would naturally suppose him to be the 
professor of some ladies' seminary, instead of a batterv- 
mau. 

The uniforms for the A. and P. boys have arrived, and 
to-day their eighteen messengers made their appearance 
clad in a neat suit, of the cadet pattern — a gray somewhat 
similar to that of the mail carriers. They are trimmed with 
black stripes, shoulder straps, etc. ; the coats trimmed 
with silver buttons ; the cap of the same color — the regu- 
lar fatigue pattern. In addition the boys are furnished 
with close-fitting rubber storm coat, leggings, and a cap, 
with shield attached, covering and protecting the neck 
and shoulders, which are to be used in wet and stormy 
weather over their uniform. A pouch for messages, very 
much like a cartridge box, is slung over the left shoulder 
by a strap of leather. The boys are very proud of their 
uniforms, aud chuckle over the W. U. boys because they 
got their uniforms first. The W. U. boys claim theirs', 
which are being made to order here. Each boy being 
measured, will fit much nicer than the A. and P. boys. 
Some of the W. U. boys — the larger ones — don't like the 
idea of being uniformed. I understand their suits are to 
be blue. Tne A. and P. boys go to Jentile's on Sunday 
to have their pictures taken. 

It is rumored that District Sup't Col. J. J. S. Wilson's 
office is to be removed to the fourth floor of the building 
now occupied by the W. U. Co. ; also, that a hat and 
coat room is to be fitted up there, aud everything checked 
in and out ; and that a lunch room is to be fitted up 
on the same floor, which will be under the immediate 
supervision of Billy McMullen, who will furnish lunch 
at the most reasonable prices possible ; as cheap, and 
better than the cheap restaurants around us. It is also 
whispered that there is to be a new floor in the operating 
room of maple and walnut, and no tobacco chewing 
will then be allowed in the room. 

The sixth regular monthly meeting of the Chicago 
Electrical Society was held in the office of Mr. E. W. 
Firman, of the American District Telegraph Co., 118 La 
Salle street, and was a decided success. Mr. Barrett's 
exhibition of the Eire Alarm Telegraph, assisted by Mr. 
Chandler, was a happy affair — a big hit. His anecdotes 
of the times when excited individuals supposed that the 
only way to awake the fire department to a sense of its 
duty was to turu the crank of that old fashioned signal 
box until they dropped down almost from sheer exhaus- 
tion, and then, able no longer to rush it around, would 
give it a slow turn or two, which would, of course, be the 
first and only intolligiblc signals sent, were very amusing. 
The reliabilty of the system in those days was forcibly 
illustrated, Mr. Barrett, after receiving it and before 
turning it in, Urst making an observation from the tower 
to see whereabouts in the city there was any undue 
amount of smoke arisiug. 

The question of "What are the most frequent errors 
in the transmission of telegrams ?" after discussion by 
nearly all present, was laid on the table for future discus- 
sion. The music was furnished, without instrumental 
accompanimeut, by Messrs. C. W. Jones, W. E. M. 
Browne, W. C. Long aud J. C. Bale. 

Apropos of the- fast telegraphing dono over the A. and 



P. lines recently, as mentioned in one of my letters, my 
attention is called to the fact that little Fred. Leonhardt, 
of the Board of Trade Telegraph Co., who two years ago 
was messenger for the Great Western Co., sent to Mr. 
Eostier, manager of the Board of Trade Co., Milwaukee, 
formerly with the W. U. Co., this city, more recently 
manager of the old P. and A. Co.'s Board of Trade office, 
114 messages between the hours of 9:30 and 10:35 A. M., 
and the wire was interrupted during that time exactly 
seven minutes. Ered takes in the business at the win- 
dow, checks it and sends it in a manner astonishing to 
some of the "old timers," even. Occasional. 



Christmas and New Year's Amenities. — A Plucky 
A. & P. Operator. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 2. 
To the Editok op The Telegrapher. 

Merry Christmas aud Happy New Year have became 
a thing of the past. Scarcely had we uttered the greet- 
ing thereof before we buckled on our armor, preparatory 
to fighting the battles of the incoming year. 

The force of the A. & P. was reduced to a bare work- 
ing number. Those that had a merry Christmas took the 
wheel that the others might have a happy New Year. 
Every one enjoyed themselves and are now ready to fight 
for the A. & P. with renewed vigor. It being a holiday, 
no injunciion were served on their enjoyment. Alas! 
that the W. U. should be obliged to allow such a golden 
moment to pass. No doubt, they will not be able to 
scratch their heads for a week, having probably gnawed 
their finger nails off in chagrin. 

At 12 o'clock Sunday night, that A. & P. night gang 
sent the W. U. night gang the following: 

" The A. & P. gang send greeting to the W. U. gang, 
and wish them a happy New Year, and many returns, 
minus the sliding scale." 
To which they replied : 

"The owls of W. TJ. send greetings, and wishes for a 
thrice happy New Year " to the A. & P. ditto. 

" May you live long, etc.," but uot always as " news 
mongers," or aide de camps of the publik — in the biz now 
being honored with your labors." 

Thus may it be forever — harmony exist among the 
fraternity, whatever company we labor for. 

A most remarkable case of pluck and desire to forward 
the company's interest came to my notice last Friday 
night; said pluck being brought forth by the accident on 
the Lake Shore road at Ashtabuia, Ohio. 

The accident occurred about 5:30 P. M. The A. & P. 
man was lying sick at his house. At 11 P. M. some par- 
ties went to his house and asked him if an operator 
could be procured to run his office. He knew of none, 
but said that if they would carry him down to the office 
he would do all he could. This was done, and at 12 
o'clock, A. M., he called up Cleveland, and began his la- 
bors by sending a stock of business to us. This was fol- 
lowed by specials to Chicago and New York. He worked 
this way bolstered up in his chair till 5:30 A. M. He was 
then carried home, where he laid till noon, and was then 
again carried back to the office, where he remained till 
2:10 A. M. 

During the night he sent over 10,000 words of specials, 
besides a number of messages. As soon as an operator 
could be spared, one was sent to relieve him, but he 
would not be relieved — he stuck to his post, and, with 
the assistance of the operator sent him, he worked till 
2:10 A. M. 

The gentleman is an old timer, and probably there are 
many who will recognize the name H. H. Hall. Such 
interest aud pluck as that is certainly not on record. 

The W. TJ. did a large amount of work there. They 
sent down Ed. Jenny from here, who whooped up the 
specials to the boys in Cleveland in a manner that aston- 
ished his associates here. F. 



An Appropriate and Complimentary Presenta- 
tion to Superintendent Dickey. 

Omaha, Neb., January 5. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

In wishiug all our friends a " Happy New Year " we 
didn't forget you, although our tardiness in speaking to 
you about it may make it appear that wo did. But please 
remember that if it is a little late it comes Irom the heart. 
May you see many of them before you "chip up" is our 
earnest wish. I suppose it is a good plan, when a fel- 
low "goes for to be a correspondent," to begin well. So 
we will start in by telling you what happened in Omaha 
when young '77 was but a few houm old, and every- 
body painfully and systematically sober, because no Now 
Year's calls had been made, and no strong coffoo had 
been taken in. It happened at the residence of Mr. John 
J. Dickey, Superintendent of the Union Pacific and 
Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Companies, at eleven 

o'clock in the morning, at which hour Mr. D was 

the recipient of a handsome testimonial from some of his 
old employes. It consists of a selection of photographs 



(forty-four in number) grouped around a centre piece 
containing a large sized photograph of himself— the 
whole set in an elegant frame — size 48 by 52 inches. 
At the top of the picture is the pen and lightning in the 
clouds ; immediately below this, and above Mr. Dickey's 
photograph, is a design representing a pole supporting a 
large number of wires, and intertwined among the wires 
is " 73 to our Superintendent." At the bottom a full set 
of instruments is represented. Under Mr. Dickey's pho- 
tograph are the words, " No Vacancies — J. J. Dickey, 
Sup't;" and under the likeness of each man is a fac- 
simile of his autograph. 

As the boys and girls presenting it were scattered all 
over the district, of course they could not all be present ; 
but a party of Omaha men, consisting of Messrs. Hilliker, 
Dickinson, O'Brien, Vian> McElroy, Donnelly, Rheem, 
and Korty, took the picture to Mr. D.'s residence, and 
found him out making calls. He soon came home in 
answer to a message from Mrs. Dickey, and as soon as 
he entered the drawing room Rheem, who had been pre- 
viously well braced up with camphor and ice water, 
struggled to his feet, and presented the picture in what 
he says is his maiden speech ; which Mr. O'Brien, having 
a failing for phonography, caught on the fly. According 
to O'Brien's notes Mr. Rheem spoke as follows : 

" Mr. Dickey : I have been delegated by my brother 
operators of your district to the performance of a duty 
that gives me great pleasure. As the holiday season, 
when every one should cherish the kindliest feelings to- 
wards their fellow men, approached some of your old 
employes, wishing to give expression to their friendship 
and high esteem lor you, prepared the testimonial which 
I now have the honor of presenting. The faces grouped 
in this collection of photographs are all familiar to you. 
Some of the gentlemen represented have served you faith- 
fully for many years, and have stood by you through 
some of the darkest hours of your telegraphic life, and I 
am certain that there is not a lady or gentleman whose 
face appears there who will not be as ready and as will- 
ing to serve under your administration in the future as 
they have been in the past. I hope that you will accept 
this in the same spirit of friendship in which it is given ; 
and in the days to come, when, perhaps, we may all be 
scattered to different parts of the world, if thoughts of 
the friends of the present come to you, I trust that the 
answer which has greeted so many applicants for tele- 
graphic honors, may not be given to them, but that you 
will always have a " vacancy " in your heart for your old 
Union Pacific, and Atlantic and Pacific friends and em- 
ployes; in whose behalf, for whom, and for myself, I beg 
leave to wish for yourself, your v^ife and family, a happy, 
happy New Year and many returns." 

Mr. Dickey, who was taken completely by surprise, re- 
plied as follows : 

"Mr. Rheem and Gentlemen: I am utterly unable to 
express my feelings on this occasion; I can only say that 
I am highly gratified in receiving this testimonial of your 
friendship. I accept, and thank you for it from the bot- 
tom of my heart. I hope that our relations to each other 
through the year that has just dawned may be as pleasant 
as they have been in the one that has just closed, and 
that we may all work together for the good of our com- 
mon cause. I wish you all a happy New Year." 

Mrs. Dickey then invited the gentlemen into the dining 
room, where they did justice to the good thiugs spread 
before them, and then took their departure. The occa- 
sion will be long remembered by those who participated. 

Rex. 



A Suggestion to Managers of Telegraph Com- 
panies. 

Madison, N. J., Jan. 8. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

I am impressed with the idea that if the principal 
telegraph companies would supply each office under their 
respective jurisdiction with standard telegraphic journals 
of the present day, they could greatly improve their op- 
erators. Many operators at the present day are too 
poorly compensated to permit such an outlay. I think 
contracts could be made with the publishers of the 
papers to supply them at a verj r moderate cost. These 
operators will read them with interest, and will certainly 
improve in their line of business, and become more effi- 
cient in their duties. If every oporator in the small 
country towns had a copy of The Telegrapher, once 
a week, they would improve electrically, I am sure. 

Another thing I would mention is this: that if every 
office was furnished with copies of Pope's Hand Book, 
and other similar works, the oporators would know more 
about testing and taking care of their instruments. Of 
course I do not intend to infer that every operator is 
ignorant. I know that a good many are so, as their 
knowledge was simply picked up from other persons, 
many from whom they learned to operate. 

I must close these suggestions by thanking the editor 
of The Telegrapher for such an interesting and sterl- 
ing paper as it has become of late. I hope that it will 
continue to increase in size and circulation. 

Jersey Blue 



10 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



fJan. 18, 187?. 



The Telegrapher 

PBYOTBD TO THE JNTEF^ESTS 
OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC, FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1877. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY 

At 20 COETLAKDT STREET, Room 5. 



THIIR. TEEN TH VOLUME. 



TEEMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES FIVE (JENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 

Dominion of Canada. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 

RATES 0E ADVERTISING. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil) each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

One Column, " " 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty pee Ceni 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any persons sending the names and money for four Sub- 
scribers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per 
year, will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
ohange in their address, must always send their old as 
well, as their new address. 

Remittances ior subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee maybe deducted from the amount. 

Communications must be addressed to 



p. O. Box 5503.) 



J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

20 CORTLANDT ST., New York, 



INDEX TO ADVERTISING PAGES. 

American Eire Alarm and Police Telegraph 

Ashley, J.N ii, i 

Bishop Gutta Percha Works 

Bliss, George H. & Co ' .... 

Brooks, David 

Buell, M. A., & Sons 

Chester, Charles T 

Day, A. G 

Electric R. R. Signal Company 

Lannert & Decker 

Moore, Joseph & Sons 

Merchants' Manufacturing and Construction Co 

Norris, James L 

Partrick & Carter 

Phillips, Eugene P 

Protection Life Insurance Co 

Russell Brothers 

Shims, J. O. & Co 

The' Leclanche Battery Company 

Tillotson, L. G. & Co 

Telegraphers' Mutu al Benefit A ssociation 

Western Electric Manufacturing Co i, iii, 

Wallace & Sons 

Watts & Co 

Williams, Charles, Jr 



The Telegrapher may be had at the news stand in 
the Receiving Office of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, corner of Broadway and Dey street, where it is 
regularly on sale. 

The Business and Telegrapic Situation and Pros- 
pect. 

The beginning of a new year is not usually a very 
busy time for telegraphs. At this season there is a pause 
in business generally, while old matters are being settled, 
an account of the operations of the previous year taken, 
and the pecuniary results ascertained. Eor various 
causes the telegraph business is now unusually dull, even 
for the season, and from present appearances is likely to 
continue so for probably at least a month to come. 

The business of the country is at a very low ebb, and 
the good time which has been so anxiously looked for has 



not as yet made its appearance. This is to be regretted, 
but there seems to be no way of avoiding the conclusion 
that business is dull and times are hard. In this coun- 
try the political complications have aggravated the situa- 
tion, and although there is little anticipation of any 
serious disturbance arising, yet there is the uncertainty 
which paralyzes industry, makes capitalists indisposed to 
risk money in new enterprises, and in every way restricts 
business operations. But for this the immediate pros- 
pects would be brighter, and there is reason to believe 
that the country would rapidly recover from the depres- 
sion uuder which it has so severely suffered since the 
panic of 1873. 

It is inevitable that telegraph interests should suffer 
from this condition of affairs. That it will continue much 
longer we do not believe. The resources of the country 
are so vast, the enterprise and energy of the people so 
great, that there must soon be a recovery. The country 
is growing richer ; the enforced economy of the people 
is having its effect ; our exports largely exceed our im- 
ports; our indebtedness to foreign countries is being re- 
duced; and specie, instead of flowing out of the country, 
is coming in to pay for the productions which the world 
must have, and which cannot be had in adequate quan- 
tities anywhere else. The result is seen in the apprecia- 
tion of our currency to the standard of the world to such 
an extent as to promise to solve by natural means the 
vexed question of a resumption of specie payments. 

As the telegraphs suffer from a general depression of 
business, so they must benefit by a renewal of general 
prosperity. There is, therefore, we firmly believe, a good 
time coming for telegraphers as for other classes of the 
community, and that at no very distant period. We 
have all had a rude awakening from the fool's paradise, 
in which we rejoiced in the years subsequent to the close 
of the war. The unpleasant lessons of economy have 
been enforced upon us, and we have learned in the hard 
school of experience that an inflated currency and reck- 
less expenditure must unavoidably lead to bankruptcy 
and poverty ; and that the waste and destruction of 
property and labor, inseparable from all wars, must be 
made good by economy and slow accumulation. 

This process of liquidation and recuperation has been 
a painful one, and much suffering has to be endured by 
all classes of the community while it is in progress. 
Nominal values have declined, and many who were con- 
sidered, and who considered themselves rich, have been 
reduced to comparative poverty. Others who were in 
moderate circumstances, and especially those who de- 
pended upon the compensation of their labor for the 
support of themselves and those dependent upon them, 
have been reduced to absolute want and suffering. 

The demand for telegraphic labor has been exceeded 
by the supply, and the compensation for such labor has 
been reduced. Eor those- who have had employment 
this reduction has been in part at least offset by a reduc- 
tion in the cost of living, but it is always unpleasant and 
a cause of dissatisfaction to have our compensation and 
profits reduced, and it is difficult to convince those affect- 
ed of the justice of the reduction. It has been sub- 
mitted to, however, as there was no option to do other- 
wise, and the telegraphic fraternity has confined its 
opposition to protests and remonstrances which, it must 
be said, have been of little effect. 

In the future, when the present depression is past, and 
business resumes its wonted activity, opportunities will 
be afforded to improve our condition and that of those 
associated with us. There must come a practical reor- 
ganization of the telegraph service, which shall afford 
better prospects for those who by ability and industry 
show themselves to be of more than average value, and 
fitted to occupy the higher and more important tele- 
graphic positions. We have reason to believe that this 
subject is now attracting the attention and consideration 
of the managers of telegraph interests, and that eventu- 
ally a different system will be adopted, and situations 
and compensation be graded so as to afford better en- 
couragement for those who seek to perfect themselves in 
practical telegraph service. Time will be required to 
perfect these changes and improvements, but we have 



faith to believe that in the future they will be accom- 
plished, and that the telegraph service may yet become 
more permanently attractive to those who are best quali- 
fied to perform its important" duties properly and satis- 
factorily. 

The Effort to Amalgamate Atlantic Cable 
Interests. 

The pending general meeting of the shareholders of 
the Direct United States Telegraph Company, which 
takes place in London February 2, will be a most im- 
portant one. The party moving for an amalgamation of 
interests of the two Atlantic cable companies undoubtedly 
control a considerable amount of the stock of both com- 
panies, and are making every possible effort to establish 
the policy advocated by them, and in contravention of 
the policy upon which the Direct United States Telegraph 
Company was established. This is as strenuously re- 
sisted by the directors and shareholders, who desire to 
maintain the company in an independent position, and 
by the public generally on both sides of the Atlantic who 
patronize the lines, and who desire the maintenance of 
competition, and anticipate an advance in cable rates, 
should such an amalgamation be effected. Circulars 
advocating and denouncing the proposed arrangement 
are being numerously printed and issued in England. No 
less than nine of these have been issued lately, and 
copies received in this country. The press is also daily 
discussing the subject, so that when the shareholders ' 
meet, the matter will have been fully presented to them. 

The meeting to be held is likely to prove a lively and 
interesting one, and its action is awaited with interest. 
There is no doubt but that, should the movement prove 
successful, a new cable would be speedily laid, for we do 
not regard the permanent reestablishmeut of a monopoly 
of Atlantic cable telegraphy as possible. 

The legal difficulties existing to the consummation of 
such arrangements between the two companies as is pro- 
posed are very great, and they will undoubtedly, if 
necessary, be availed of to the greatest possible extent 
by the opposition, in case other means of resistance 
should fail. 

The telegraph companies in the United States and 
Canada, with whom the Direct Company have entered 
into contracts for connection and exchange of business, 
are deeply interested in this matter, and have addressed 
a strong protest to the directors of the Direct Company 
against such action as is proposed by the Globe Telegraph 
and Trust Company. 

The following from the money article of the Daily News, 
of London, for December 14, 1876, gives some figures 
respecting the comparative business of the two com- 
panies, from which it would appear that the Direct 
Company has no reason to complain of a lack of patron- 
age. That the competition has proved very damaging to 
the Anglo-American Company is evident, and it is but 
natural that there should be an effort to do away with it 
on the part of those interested in that company ; but, 
even from the standpoint of the Anglo-American Com- 
pany, we doubt whether the proposed action would 
prove permanently beneficial to Atlantic cable interests : 

"As at the present juncture it maybe interesting to 
'the shareholders of the Direct United States Telegraph 
Company to see the exact proportion of transatlantic 
telegraphy which has fallen to their lot since our issue 
of the 4th October last, we have completed the table of 
receipts, etc., up to last week. The lollowing shows 
the last ten weeks' receipts, and peicentage of each 
company to total : 



Direct. 

Week ending Oct. 7 £'3,?50 

" 14 3,600 

" 21 3,700 

" " " 28 3,660 

" Nov. 4 3,620 

" " 11 3,450 

" 18 3,700 

" 25 3,840 

" Dec. 2 3,550 

" 9 3,850 

A long circular has been issued by Mr. Loeffler, in re- 
ply to that of the chairman of the Globe Telegraph Com- 
pany; but it is unnecessary to quote it, as it is almost 





Percentage of 




each to 




Total Earnings. 


Anglo. 


Direct. Anglo. 


£10,420 


26.46 73.54 


9,780 


26.90 73.10 


10,280 


26.46 73.54 


10,440 


25.95 74.05 


10,300 


26.00 74.00 


9,290 


27.08 72.92 


10,350 


26.33 73.67 


10,090 


27.56 72.44 


9,900 


26.39 73.61 


10,620 


26.60 73.40 



Jan. 13, 1817.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



11 



self-evident that the Direct Company's shareholders, now 
that they have the certainty of quickly gathering; in some 
of the fruits of last year's work, will not deliberately 
throw themselves practically under the control of a rival 
company. Certainly, if they study what is the undoubted 
interest of the public, as well as that of their own com- 
pany, the chances of the success of the proposed scheme 
are small indeed." 



Reduction of Tariff by the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company. 

The Western Union Telegraph Company has recently 
made a very general reduction of telegraph charges for 
New England stations. This reduction applies not only 
to stations where there are competing offices, but to all 
offices. Under the new tariff the charge for messages 
between any two stations in the New England States, or 
between such stations and New York Ciiy, does not ex- 
ceed 30 cents. Other important reductions have also 
been made by this company recently. The experiment 
of cheap telegraph rates appears to be likely to be very 
generally tried, and the result will be looked for with 
much interest. There has been, during the last ten years, 
a constant gradual reduction of telegraph charges going 
on, which ought to be satisfactory to the public. Whether 
this can be carried much further without injuriously affect- 
ing the service is a question. It is to be hoped that' nei- 
ther the pressure of competition or other causes will 
reduce the rates below an amount which will compensate 
properly the employes, or prove remunerative to the capi- 
tal invested. 



fraternity in the last dozen years, and its power lor good 
was never greater than at the present time. It has stood 
by the fraternity, and advocated its cause against all 
opposition, and we feel that it is not asking too much in 
soliciting not only a continued but increased support. 
The price of subscription is but a trifle comparatively, 
and there are few telegraphers who cannot better afford 
the investment than to do without the paper. 



Specimen Copies of "The Telegrapher." 

We will send as many copies of The Telegrapher to 
parties who are willing to interest themselves in obtain- 
ing subscribers as may be desired, or can be used to ad- 
vantage in the work. Persons sending for specimen 
copies for distribution will conler a favor if they will in 
their application state the number of copies required. 



§S**0flttBl0.. 

Miss Kapp nee Miss Mollie Archer, late manager at 
Palmyra, N. Y., A. and P., has been very seriously sick 
for some time past. Her many Iriends will be glad to hear 
that she is much better. 

Miss Ada Travis, of Syracuse, has been appointed man- 
ager at Palmyra, N. Y. 

Mr. Ered. R. Rickards, foreman of repairs, Eastern 
Division ol A. and P., has suspended work lor the winter 
and put his team out. Is now at Rochester, N. Y., for 
the winter, looking after the interests of the company. 

Dr. J. N. Culbertson, A. and P., Buffalo, N. Y., cares 
for the sick as usual and reports plenty of it. 



Character Sketches of Telegraphers. 

The character sketches which have appeared from 
time to time in 'The Telegrapher have been an inter- 
esting feature of telegraphic journalism. They have 
presented characteristics of members of the telegraphic 
profession which are recognized by almost every person 
who has been engaged for any length of time in the busi- 
ness. Some of them are of rather a disreputable charac- 
ter, but their story conveys a moral and a warning to 
those who now engage in the business, which cannot fail 
to have a salutary effect. Good fellows in the main, 
they are their own worst enemies, and in time become 
mere wrecks, floating about from place to place, in pov- 
erty and misery, for which the brief pleasure derived 
from dissipation and debauchery is but small compensa- 
tion. As the business has become systematized, and a 
more rigid discipline introduced and enforced in the tele- 
graph service, the number of such operators has gradu- 
ally diminished, and in time, it is to be hoped, they may 
be entirely eliminated. 

We publish this week two chapters of a sketch by our 
talented contributor, M. O'Reanon, which gives the ex- 
perience of an operator whose introduction to telegraphic 
city life was under the auspices of telegraphers whose 
influence and example had its natural effect, and whose 
efforts to break away from such a demoralized existence 
are counteracted by his quondam associates, who seek to 
drag him back into the moral abyss from which he is 
striving to extricate himself. The conclusion of this 
sketch will appear in the next number of The Tele- 
grapher. 

Subscribe Now. 

Subscriptions to The Telegrapher are always in 
order, but the commencement of a new volume is an 
especially favorable time to commence new subscriptions, 
as then the volume complete can be secured. Unless 
otherwise directed, new subscribers will, for the present 
be furnished with the numbers from the commencement 
of the volume. 

We would urge upon every friend of The Tele- 
grapher the necessity of their exerting themselves to 
increase its circulation, and upon those whose subscrip- 
tions have expired, their immediate renewal. No other 
journal can take the place of The TELEGRAPHER, whose 
purpose is to instruct as well as interest and amuso its 
readers. It has rendered good service to the telegraphic 



"Resolved, That the Speaker of the House issue a writ 
under his hand and seal, attested by the Clerk, command- 
ing the Sergeant-at-Arms, either by himself or his special 
deputies or messengers, to arrest William Orton and bring 
him without delay to to the bar of the House of Repre- 
sentatives to answer for a breach of its privileges and a 
contempt of its authority in failing to appear and testify 
as a witness before said committee, of which Hon. Wil- 
liam R. Morrison is chairman, in obedience to a subpoena 
commanding him so to do, served upon him on the 19th 
of December, 18*76 ; and, also, in refusing to bring before 
said committee certain papers, as by said subpoena he 
was commanded, and to be dealt with as the law, under 
the facts, may require." 

After debate, this resolution was adopted by a vote of 
158 yeas to 33 nays. The Speaker's warrant was issued 
accordingly, and in the next issue of The Telegraphed, 
what Mr. Orton has to say to the House will be given. 



Congress and the Western Union Officials. 

Congress, and more especially the House of Repre- 
sentatives, seems to consider itself an object of very gene- 
ral contempt, to judge by the activity of the Sergeant-at- 
Arms in serving warrants against telegraph employes aud 
officials and others ordered to be arraigned to answer at 
the bar of the House for alleged contempt of that honora- 
ble body. 

On Eriday last, the 5th inst., Mr. Barnes, the manager 
of the New Orleans office of the Western Union Company, 
whose arrest and previous arraignment have been pre- 
viously noted in The Telegrapher, was again arraigned, 
and submitted a written answer. After submitting cer- 
tain techn.cal objections to the validity aud effect of the 
subpoena, he goes on to stale that some time previous to 
the serving of the subpoena he had, by order of his dis- 
trict supeiintendent, sent to him at Mobile all the business 
that had passed through the New Orleans office from the 
1st of November to the 6th of December, and that since 
such transmission he has had no control of the messages 
called for, and could not, therefore, produce them as re- 
quired, nor has he any knowledge whatever that such 
messages as were called for in the paper ever passed 
through the New Orleans office. 

He denies any contemplated contempt of the authority 
or privileges of the House, and had only sought to do his 
duty, as he understood it, and asks to be discharged from 
custody. 

Upon the conclusion of the reading of the answer, Mr. 
Knott, of Kentucky, offered a resolution that the report 
of the committee, the answer just read, and all other pa- 
pers relating to the alleged breach of contempt, be referred 
to the Judiciary Committee, with instructions to report, 
as early as practicable, what action should be taken in 
relation thereto. 

After debate the resolution was adopted, and Mr. 
Barnes was remanded to the custody of the Sergeant- 
at-Arms. Up to the time this is written, the Judiciary 
Committee have not taken action on the subject. 

The case of William M. Turner, manager of Jackson- 
ville, Oregon, Western Union office, reported by Senator 
Morton as refusing to answer certain questions in regard 
to messages passing through his office, in connection with 
the Oregon electoral college affair, has not yet been defin- 
itely acted upon. It was debated in the Senate on Eri- 
day of last week, but on a vote, no quorum appearing, 
the matter went over. 

In the House, ou Tuesday last, the Speaker laid before 
the House a communication from Mr. Morrison, Chair- 
man of the New Orleans Investigating Committee, trans- 
mitting extracts from tho proceedings of the committee 
in regard to refusal of Mr. Orton, President of the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Company, to appear and testify be- 
fore the committee or to produce tho telegrams called for 
in a subpoena served upon him. 

The prodecdings having been read, Mr. Hunton, of 
Virginia, offered tho following resolution : 



Domestic Telegraph Company.— Acknowledgment 
of Merit of Messengers. 

An official circular issued by the Domestic Telegraph 
Company of this city, on New Year's day, makes the fol- 
lowing acknowledgment of merit of messengers employed 
during the past year : 

" It gives the managers of the company great pleasure 
to say that during the past year, 1876, their efforts to in- 
crease the effectiveness of its services to its customers 
have been ably seconded by the messengers in its em- 
ployment, and they now desire to present the following 
prizes and make honorable mention of cases of special 
merit: 

James A. Sheehan, messenger No. 9, is presented 
with a silver medal as a first prize, for a continuous years' 
service, which has been faultless ; a record that is t as unu- 
sual as it is praiseworthy. 

John F. Wiley, messenger No. 7, is herewith presented 
with a silver medal as a prize for a continuous years' 
service, carefully and faithfully rendered. 

William H. Dean, sergeant 2nd district, has not been 
with the company a continuous year, but his record for 
thorough and conscientious work is perfect, and is deserv- 
ing of all praise. 

The following named messengers are all worthy of 
honorable mention : John E. Rees, John Whittle, Wil- 
lard Sawyer, William McVesty, Samuel Rogers, Michael 
Famning, Charles Smith, Wm. Dougherty, E. E. 
Schwartz. 



A. & P. Telegraph Boys. 

A new uniform, neat in pattern and of excellent fit, 
appeared upon the streets yesterday. On inquiry, it was 
learned that the Atlantie and Pacific Telegraph Com- 
pany had uniformed all their messengers. The uniform 
is handsome, and arranged to suit the necessities of these 
bearers of condensed lightning. The suit is of cadet 
gray, with black trimmings, a soldierly cross belt hangs 
from the shoulder, to winch is attached a pouch for all 
messages that the fleet-footed boys must carry, with tele- 
graphic speed, to their several addresses. The A. & P. 
have made quite a commendable move, and, doubtless, it 
will be imitated by the other lines. Another feature is 
that, after the uniform becomes well kuown, the genuine 
messenger can always be called for a sure, speedy and 
cheap despatch of any number of words that may be 
wanted wired through.— The Chicago Courier. 



New York Western Union Notes. 

The statement that George Cummiug reaches the oper- 
ating room through the pneumatic tubes is a libel, and it 
is but justice to this gentleman that the true story regard- 
ing his mode of gaining the top of the big building should 
be told. 

When the hands of the Tribune clock point to the three 
minutes of five P. M., George may be seen about the 
stand of the apple women near the Dey Street entrance. 
He purchases a two cent apple, and, as he reaches for the 
necessary lucre, remarks pleasantly to the lady attend- 
ant "that the conservative expenditure of Ethiopian pro- 
clivities tends in a measure to concentrate the hypothesis 
of modern physical ethics as applied to tho Darwinian 
theory," or somo equally scientific remark, aud proceeds 
to divest himsel of his boots. Having done so, he pro- 
duces from the inner pocket of his Ulster two hundred 
feet of tho best linen twine, fastens one end to the boots, 
and, with the other end in his teeth, spreads out his arms, 
and humming a bar of Wagner's latest agony floats 
gently and gracefully up to tho balcony, pulls up the 
boots, aud two minutes later his elegant form may be 
seen gliding into tho city line department, where his 
beaming smile lights up tho gloom till twolvo A. M. 

Copies of Jim Oalahan's cartoon of tho telephone are 
looked for anxiously. The picture is ono of Jim's best 
efforts, and we predict for it a largo sale. 

Baldwin and Rao aro probably the hardest worked 
men in tho office. 



THE TELEGRAPH 



[Jan. i3, 18T7 



Brooklynites now make their appearance in the vicinity 
of 10 A.. M. Ice has something to do with it, undoubt- 
edly, but the fact that a chromo is offered, together with 
a twelve to nine trick for the latest man during the 
month, is the prime cause. 

Charley Davis, of the Associate/1 Press, has gone to 
Baltimore to remain during the illness of Mr. Bishop. 

The duplex printer to Washington works finely. Mr. 
Fullon, of the Philadelphia circuit, assists Mr. Edwards 
thereon ; and Mr. Thomas P. Scully, who, we all remem- 
ber meeting at the Centennial, takes Mr. Eullon's place 
on the Philadelphia printers. Mr. Scully has been out of 
the business for some years, but the rapid manner in 
which he shoots the paper slips to Philadelphia shows he 
has not " lost his grip." 

The Indianapolis Saturday Herald appeared week before 
last enlarged and in a new dress. Among other spicy con- 
tributions is a letter from its New York correspondent, 
Mr. George Gumming, of the W. IT. office, this city, who 
jots down with his news items a compliment to the fra- 
ternity in the way of some queer experiences, entitled. 
" Esthetics of Telegraphing." Mr. Cumming long held 
the position of metropolitan representative for the Spring- 
field (Ohio) Republic, and is now an occasional contributor 
for that paper. We wish him success in his new enter- 
prise. Being a former resident of the Railroad City, no 
doubt his letters will be all the more prized by the In- 

dianapolitans. 

*^-* 

Boston (Mass.) W. U. Notes. 

Mr. George L. F. RuGGLES, formerly our night clerk 
in the receiving department, died on Thursday night of 
last week, of consumption, after a long illness. The de- 
ceased made a gallant fight with the disease, which all 
saw but too plainly was slowly crowding him off life's 
stage toward the tomb. Within a month of his death he 
was at his accustomed place at the receiving counter, 
but a sudden unfavorable turn caused him to fail very 
rapidly, and hardly had it passed from one to another, 
" Joe is rather worse to-day," (how he obtained the name 
of "Joe,'' I never knew, but the boys always called him 
by that name), then it was chauged to " Joe is gone, poor 
fellow," and we realized that one who had been an asso- 
ciate with some of us for many years, would be seen at 
his accustomed place no more. . 

Tho funeral service was held at the Temple Street 
church, and was attended by quite a large delegation of his 
former associates, over fifteen being present. The floral 
offerings from relatives and former associates were numer- 
ous and beautiful. Messrs. Robinson, of the operating 
department, Davidson and McGrath, of the receiving de- 
partment, and Dow, formerly of the last named depart- 
ment, now clerk of the Hotel Brunswick, acting as pall 
bearers. The remains were interred at Mt. Auburn. 

Deceased leaves a wife, whose already delicate health 
has been utterly prostrated by the events of the past 
week. To her the fund accruing from her husband's 
membership in The Mutual Benefit Association, which 
dates back, I believe, almost to its first organization, will 
prrove indeed a blessing, and a most opportune one. 

Mr. J. L. Horn, has gone South. This is a trying cli- 
mate for a Southerner. 

Mr. Hennessy, of Springfield, who has been subbing for 
O'Connor, has taken a night position on tho A. & P. 
here. 



The day signals are now copied at the main office by 
Messrs. Evans and Shelley alternately. The night sig- 
nals are still received by the operator at the observatory, 
but it is probable the whole business will be moved down 
town before long-, in which case all the signals will be 
received in the W. U. main office. 



Albany (N. ¥.) and Vicinity Telegraphic Notes. 

We are now fairly launched into our annual legislative 
work. The prospect of considerable legislation affecting 
the cities of New York and Brooklyn seems to indicate 
that we shall have enough business to occupy some of our 
leisure moments during the session. 

Mr. W. A. Austin, from the Troy wire, takes charge of 
the Capitol and Congress Hall offices for the Western 
Union. 

Mr. Fred. A. Warriner, an old timer, attends to the 
Troy wire during the absence of Mr. Austin. 

The A. and P. office at the Capitol is in charge of Mr. 
George P. Menmuir. 

The A. and P. have also opened a branch office in the 
Board of Trade room, which is presided over by Mr. Geo. 
F. Smith, from the A. and P. main office. 

Mr. Jno. R. Yan Wormer, all night man in the W. U. 
office, is acting as private secretary to Speaker Sloan, of 
the Assembly, during the session. 

Mr. S. E. Mayo, formerly manager of the Albany W. 
U. office, and who has for several years held the position 
of general ticket agent for the Delaware and Hudson Ca- 
nal Co., has resigned, and Mr. Joseph Angell, the popular 
superintendent of telegraph for that company, has been 
appointed as his successor. 

The Dudley Observatory, which has been run by the 
Signal Service staff since the station was established in 
this city, has been placed in charge of Professor Boss, 
of Washington, D. C. The observatory, which has been 
without a regular professor since the resignation of Prof. 
Hough, will hereafter be operated as a part of Union 
University, of Schenectady, N. Y. 



Chicago (111.) Telegraphic Notes. 

Mr. Charlie Haselton of the A. and P. main office is 
lying very sick of scarlet fever here. His mother has ar- 
rived from Janesville to care for him. 

The A. and P. management here are ably assisted by 
Messrs. E. W. Dennis, A. C. Barker, B. Allen, W. R. 
Batchelder, T. Kehoe, E. P. Delano, E. Meyers, W. D. 
Chandler, J. F. Tallman, J. J. Powers, G. A. Leid, C. H. 
Haselton, S. G. Ramsey, F. E. Talley, F. E. Angell, C. E. 
Riehle, and Mr. Campbell, lately of New Orleans, now 
working extra here ; all operators and good ones. 

Dr. J. C. Dorchester, an " old timer," and Mr. Ed. Pat- 
ton, another, have accepted positions on the W. U. extra 
force. Several of those who have been on the extra 
force for some time have been promoted to regular situa- 
tions. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

At a meeting of the shareholders of the West India 
and Panama Telegraph Company, held in London, Dec. 
15, 1876, to consider the plan for the reconstruction of 
the company, a resolution in favor thereof was carried 
in a full meeting, with but four dissentiants. 

The Paris correspondent of the London Standard says 
some inventor has found out a means of sending portraits 
by telegraph. The modus operandi has not yet been dis- 
covered, but experiments have been made by the police 
authorities of Paris and Lyons, and, it is said, with com- 
plete success. The portrait of a Lyons official was for- 
warded from Paris by the new telegraphic apparatus, and 
at once recognized. In return, the Lyons police tele- 
graphed to Paris the portrait, accompanied by the usual 
discription of a clerk who had just absconded with his 
master's money, and the Pans police were enabled, 
thanks to the telegraphic portrait, to arrest the thief on 
his alighting from the train at the Lyons railway station. 

It appears that great difficulties were recently raised 
by the Servian authorities, in the way ot despatching 
despatches by telegraph from Belgrade, relating to war 
movements. The consequence was a loss of many hun- 
dreds of pounds to the Servian government. The cor- 
respondents had to go and telegraph from Semlin, in the 
Austro-Hungarian dominions, reached by steamer from 
Belgrade in a quaiter of an hour. This is a very small 
town, but its telegraph office is of European reputation. 
Never in any instance did it fail to meet the large call 
made upon it. There was not an operator in the office 
who understood a word of English, and yet the account of 
the battle of Alexinatz, which appeared in the London 
Times of September 4, and occupied nearly four columns, 
was transmitted from Semlin without the mistake of a 
single word. 

The monthly abstract of the Eastern Telegraph Com- 
pany shows that the average rate of transmission, in 
November, of messages from Calcutta to London, was 37 
minutes; from Bombay, 25' minutes; and from all other 
Indian Stations, 47 minutes. The Indo-European Tele- 
graph Company state that the cable between Singapore 
and Java is restored, thus reestablishing direct telegraphic 
communication with Java, Australia, and New Zealand 
via Teheran. The receipts of the West Coast of Ameri- 
can Telegraph Company for four weeks, ended September 
23d, 1876, were. £2,432. 

The estimated receipts of the Cuba Submarine Tele- 
graph Company for November, 1876, were £1,600, against 
£2,353, in November, 1875. The traffic receipts of Sept- 
ember realized £2,029. 

The receipts of the Direct Spanish Telegraph Company 
for November, 1876, were £729, against £1,697 in Nov- 
ember, 1875. 

The receipts of the Eastern Telegraph Company for 
November, 1876, were £35,485, against £30,478 inNov- 
ember, 1875. 

The receipts of the Eastern Extension, Australasia 
and China Telegraph Company for November, 1876, were 
£24,611 against £13,501 in November, 1875. 

The receipts of the Great Northern Telegraph Company 
for November, 1876, were 410,177 francs, against 270,- 
844 francs in November, 1875. 

The receipts of the Western and Brazilian Telegraph 
Company for November, 1876 weie £10,856, against £9,- 
860, November, 1875. 

The receipts of the Anglo-American Telegraph Com- 
. any were for December 4th, £1,300 ; 5th, £1,600 ; 6th, , 



£1,700; 7th, £1,920; 8th, £1,820; 9th, £1,700; 10th,' 
£470. 

The traffic receipts of the Direct United States Cable 
Company for the week ended Dec. 23d were £3,300 ; 
for the week ending Dec. 30th. £2,600. 

An interim dividend of 2s. 6d. per share, or at the rate 
of five per cent, per annum, for the quarter ended Sep- 
tember 30th last, has been declared. 

The Glasgow, Scotland, Chamber of Commerce has re- 
solved to memorialize the government to introduce a Qd. 
rate for twelve word messages, including addresses. 

A postal telegraph cooperative store has been started 
at Glasgow, Scotland. 

There was a total of 330,000 words of Mr. Bright's 
speech at Birmingham, England, on December 4th, tele- 
graphed from that station. In addition to ordinary instru- 
ments, fifteen Wheatstone automatic instruments were 
worked. 



Telegraphing- the President's Message. 

The transmission of the President's message across the 
continent yesterday, over the wires of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, was one of the most remaikable 
telegraphic feats on record. Every word of it was sent 
between 11:05 A. M. and 2:26 P. M. The performance 
was remarkable not only for speed, but for accuracy, 
showing skilled manipulation on the part of officials and 
operators, all along the line. — San Francisco Chronicle, 
December 6. 



Electrical Rubber. 



A curious phenomenon has been described to the Bel- 
gian Academy by M. Spuig. A sheet of thin vulcanized 
rubber, stretched to about six times iis normal size, is 
rubbed with a cioth until it will attiact li^ht bodies. If, 
now, it be allowed to contract, the electrical attraction 
will diminish as the sheet becomes smaller, until it en- 
tirely disappears when the rubber has resumed its ordi- 
nary size. That the electric state is dependent to a certain 
extent ou the molecular arrangement of the rubber (or 
sulphur) would appear to be evident; but the phenome- 
non deserves the attention of physicists. 



Quotations of Telegraph Stocks at N. ¥. Stock 
Exchange, 

Showing Lowest and Highest Prices each day during week. 

Reported for The Telegrapher by Messrs. Hotchkiss & 

Burnham, Commission Stock Brokers, No. 36 Broad street. 



Jany. 



Western 
Union. 



72% 
72% 
72% 
72/ 2 
72% 
72% 



72 
73 
73 
72% 

73% 
73% 



Atl. and 
Pac. 


Amer. 
Dist. 


Gold and 
Stock. 


15% ... 15% 
15^ ... 16 

15M ... 16^3 
15 ... 15^ 
15J^ ... 16 
15^ ... 16 


Bid. Asked. 


Bid. Askea 



Gold and Stock and American District nothing doing. 



Diet*. 

Benson.— January 3, 1877, of brain fever, the youngest child 
and only daughter of P. M. Benson, of the Western Union 
office, Chicago, 111., aged sixteen months. 

Desmond.— On the same day, the little daughter of Mr. John 
Desmond, of the same company's office, aged eight years. The 
little one had successfully battled with scarlet fever, and was re- 
covering when an abcess formed on the neck, and, breaking 
through into an artery, terminated the life of the pet of the 
household. These brethren have our deepest and most heart- 
felt sympathy ia their hour of affliction. 



T 



HE DIRECT UNITED STATES 

CABLE COMPANY (LIMITED). 



Superintendent's Office, ) 

New York, Jan. 11, 1877. ) 

Interruption.— Bahia-Kio Janeiro Cable.— The Babia- 
Kio Janeiro cable is interrupted. Telegrams for Rio and points 
beyond will be forwarded by mail either from Bahia or Pernam- 
buco. 

GEO. G. WARD, SupH. 



Jan. 13. 1811.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



in 



TTTESTERN ELECTEIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
220 KINZIB STREET, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

Cash Capital and Surplus, $200,000 00. 

MANUFACTURERS AND JOBBERS 
OF 

ELECTRICAL 

AND 

TelewjMc Instruments anil Supplies. 

ANSON STAGER, 

President. 

BNOS M. BARTON, 

Secretary 
ELISHA GRAY, 

Electrician. 

GEO. H. BLISS, 

General Agent. 

BOSTON AGENCY, 

267 Washington Street. 

PHILADELPHIA AGENCY, 

120'A Chestnut Street. 

CINCINNATI AGENCY, 

166 Race Street. 



npHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 
DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OP THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 
of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 
Published every Saturday 

AT 

No. 20 CORTLANDT STREET (ROOM 5), 

NEW YORK. 



A. 



G. D AY, 

MANUFACTURER OF 



KERITE INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRE 
AND CABLES. 




T 



HE LECLANCHE 
BATTERY. 



THE WORLB RENOWNED 

Open Circuit Battery 

>0 ACIDS ! 

NO SULPHATE OF COPPER! 

DOES NOT FREEZE ? 

Will last from six months to several 
years Without Renewal. 



THIRTEENTH VOLUME. 

The THIRTEENTH VOLUME of THE TELEGRAPHER 
will commence with the number for JANUARY 6, 1877. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

is notable as the only telegraphic journal in the world which 
has been permanently established and maintained as an entirely 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 

relying exclusively upon the patronage received for its support. 
It is, and has been from the commencement of its publica- 
tion, the recognized representative of the PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHERS, and not conducted in the interest of any 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY, CLIQUE OB 
COMBINATION. 

As such it has been and will be honestly continued, so long as it 
shall receive the confidence and support of those whose interests 
it maintains, and whose cause it supports and advocates. 

It will enter upon its THIRTEENTH VOLUME with con- 
tinued excellent prospects, and its publisher confidently appeals 
to the TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY of the whole country 
to make it even more BRILLIANTLY SUCCESSFUL than it 
has been heretofore. 

Its columns are at all times open to the freest and fullest dis- 
cussion of all questions of interest and importance to the Fra- 
ternity, or the Telegraphic Art and Electrical Science in con- 
nection therewith. 

. As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 
patronage received, will be spared to improve its character and 
add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

FIRST CLASS INDEPENDENT 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 

The popular features of the paper, which have heretofore 
secured to it the favor and approbation of those who are inter- 
ested in Electrical Science and Practical Telegraphy, will be re- 
tained, and new features introduced from time to time which 
will maintain its character and reputation, and render it more 
valuable and desirable to those for whom it is prepared. 

While due attention will continue to be paid to Scientific Elec- 
trical Developments and Practical Improvements in Telegraphy, 
it will be made popular and interesting by Sketches, Tales and 
Original Articles, which will be furnished exclusively for its 
columns by able writers. 

One specialty which renders it valuable is the complete sum- 
mary of information which is given in its columns relative to 
telegraphs, telegraphic progress, and telegraphers throughout 
the world, and which makes each volume a 

FULL AND ACCURATE HISTORY 
of the telegraphs for the year. 



MANUFACTORY, 
SEYMOUR, CONN. 

OFFICK, 
120 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



IS ESPECIALLY ADAPTED to Electric Bells, Hotel and 
House Annunciators, Burglar Alarms, Medical Apparatus and 
all kinds of Open Circuit Work. Address, 

LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 

No. 40 West 18th Street, or 
L. G. TlLLOT£ON"& CO., Sole Agents, 

8 Dey Street, New York. 

THE HIGHEST AND ONLY PREMIUM 
AWARDED. 




PARTRIC'K & CARTER, 
38 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 

have received the highest and only Premium and Diploma 
awarded at the late Centennial Exhibition, upon their Cham- 
pion Learner's Apparatus, Giant Sounders and all Morse 
Telegraph Instruments. 

These goods are warranted better than the best and cheaper 
than the cheapest. 

Every description of Telegraph and Electrical Instruments 
and supplies constantly on hand. 

SEND FOR PRICE LISTS, CARDS AND CIRCULARS. 
Agent for California, 

GEO. POMEROY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Terms of Subscription. 

Invariably in Advance. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 
Dominion of Canada. 
Subscriptions may commence at any time. 

Rates of Advertising. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil), each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

One Column, " " . . 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty per Cent. 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for FOUR Sub- 
scribers at the regular price of subscription, $2 per year, will be 
entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
change in their address, must always send their old 
as well as their new address. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered Idler, at the risk of the Publisher, but 
nij responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars I he 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reason- 
able rales ; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, • 

(P. O. Box 5503), NEW YORK. 



The Di-electrical properties of Kerite have been tested in 
every conceivable manner during the last few years, and its 
superiority over all other kinds of insulation fully demon- 
strated. 

Its durability has been proved by constant exposure to the 
sun and atmospheric changes of the thousands of miles of 
covered wire in use by the Fire Alarm and Telegraph Com- 
panies in many of the principal cities of the country. It has 
been largely used in the City of New York, under all condi- 
tions and exposures, lor the last nine years, and at the pres- 
ent time its resistance is as great as when first exposed. 

The facts are now fully established that Kerite is not inju 
riously affected by the extremes of heat and cold experienced 
in any climate, nor by length of exposure in the atmosphere, 
It will endure long continued heat below 200° Fahrenheit, 
while for short intervals it may be subjected to 250 or 300° ; 
and it may be safely immersed in boiling water. 

The action of water, salt or fresh, not only protects all its 
qualities, but very much improves its insulation. 
It is also unchanged by being placed in the ground. 
Any corrosive elements in the earth do not act upon it, nor 
is it injured by the roots of plants, which soon destroy gutta 
percha. 

Acids act very slowly upon it, and then only to the extent of 
oxydizing the surface. 

It will bear exposure to hot, strong solutions of alkalies with- 
out injury. 

Mineral oils and illuminating gas, so far as known, do not 
produce any serious effect upon it. 
Exposure in a city gas pipe has not injured it. 
Thorough experiments have shown that it does not suffer in- 
jury by the most destructive insects of land or water. 

Samples of the core or insulated conductor of Kerite cables 
have for a long period been laid in the Caribbean Sea, yet the 
" teredo," which would have speedily destroyed other cables 
thus exposed, has left these entirely unharmed. And experi- 
. mental lines on the Isthmus have been equally exempt from the 
ravages of the white ant, which destroys wood telegraph poles 
so rapidly that iron poles have been substituted. 

The same qualities which render it so indestructible by all 
corrosive agents, insure its durability for an indefinite period iu 
all climates. 

Neither gutta percha nor vulcanized india rubber will bear 
storage in tropical climates without rapid deterioration, and 
undergoing chemical changes, which destroy their essential 
qualities, while under the same conditions the Kerite insulation 
is not changed in any respect. 

The Kerite covered wire is used almost exclusively by the 
United States Navy Department in the torpedo experiments 
which have been going on during the past three years. Prof. 
Farmer, the Government Instructor, says of it : " It fulfils the 
conditions required in the torpedo service better than any insu 
lator with which 1 am acquainted." 

John L. Lay, Esq., the inventor of the famous torpedo bearing 
his name, says that he thoroughly tested the Kerite cable in this 
country and also in Egypt, and finds it preferable to rubber or 
gutta percha, heat not affecting it, and so far as his experience 
goes, it is proof against the " teredo." 

Messrs. Gamewell & Co., proprietors of the American Fire 
Alarm and Police Telegraph, have used the Kerite wire for ten 
years. They say : "We have placed it in use in some sixty 
cities, extending from Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the north to 
New Orleans and San Francisco on the south and West, embrac- 
ing every variety of climate, and it has proved itself to be, under 
all circumstances, the most reliable and indestructible insulator 
known to us for telegraphic purposes." 

The experience of other parties using the Kerite coated wire 
overhead, underground and under water, is almost precisely 
similar, and is well summarized in the following opinion of 
George B. Prescott, Esq., the Electrician of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. Mr. Prescott says : " in September, 1809, 
we placed some of your Kerite wire, unprotected by any cover- 
ing whatever, in the tunnel under the river in Chicago, and 
have since continued its use in thai exposed sil nation with the 

most gratifying results. A portion of the lunncl is very wet, 

and water, saturated with lime, Constantly drips upon the. wires, 



while in Other portions they are ke| 
which is well known to be one of Ih 

sulating material of an organic natur 

yet, after live years' exposure, under 
Kerite covering shows no si^ns of < 
insulating covering of india rubber < 



ately wet and dry, 
■si tests that any in- 
ie subjected to ; and 
)OVe conditions, the 

■ deterioration. An 

■ percha under a like 
exposure, would have been destroyed in much less lime." 

For further particulars address 



A. G. DAY, 

IliO Broadway, New York. 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[Jan. 13, 1877. 



A 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 



GAMEWELL & CO., Proprietors, 

63 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

J. W. STOVER, 

General Agent and Superintendent. 
L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- Wast. 
TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND MANUF'G CO., Cleveland, Ohio, 

Special Agents for the Middle States. 
J. R. DOWELL, Richmond, Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina. 
J. A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 
L. M. MONROE, New Canaan, Conn., 

Special Agent for New England, 
ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE 00., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada. 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL. OFFICE, 

OK 

UPOJN THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

is now In operation in the following Cities, to whic?i referenoeis 

made ior evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



y, N.Y., 

Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn., 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Oharlestown, Mass., 
Chelsea, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass., 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Fond du Lac, Wis., 
Harrisburg, Penn., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Halifax, N. S., 
Hyde Park, 111., 
Indianapolis, Ind., 
Jersey City, N.J. , 
Kalamazoo, Mioh., 
Lansingburg, N. Y., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Manchester, N. H., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal; Canada, 
Milwaukee. Wis., 
Minneopolis, Minn., 
New York City, 



New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Nashville, Tenn., 
Newton, Mass., 
Newport, Ky., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Portland, Oregon. 
Paterson, N. J.-, 
Pawtucket, R. I., 
Quebec, L. C, 
Reading, Pa., 
Rochester, N. Y-., 
Richmond, Va. t 
St. Louis, Mo., 
St. John, N. B., 
St. Paul, Minn., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal. , 
Savannah, Ga. , 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Somerville, Miss. , 
Terre Haute, Ind., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
West Rosbury, Mass., 
Washington, D. O, 
Worcester, Mass. 



The Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

First— The Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constant per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second— The Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Xhi ro \ fbe Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 

adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 

belu. 
Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and eugine houses, by means of which the location of 

the fLe ie instantaneously communicated to the members of 

each fire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PERFECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 



FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 
IN THE WORLD. 
It is a suflleiont vindication of the claims whioh are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few Instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted In their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEW£I<Ij & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER <& CHAINING PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has just been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure Improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 
MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietors have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM. 

the introduction and operation of which involves so Utile ex- 

pense. compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 

communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 

The American System of 

ITRE ALAKM AID POLICE TELEGEAPES 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 

throaghout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 
EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 
of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the genera) adoption of this sjstem, throughout the 
UNITED STATE8 and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASIL1 BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in evtry community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they haye been enormous, theuss 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TEliBGRAPHERS in securingHt in- 

troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 

their efforts will be duly appreciated and 

compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Eire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



QEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

LOW PRICES AND 20 PER CENT. DISCOUNT. 

WATTS AND COMPANY, 

BALTIMORE, MD., 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Telegraph and Electrical Material 

AND 

SUPPLIES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

including first class Morse Instruments of all styles and designs. 

Best LINE WIRE in the country. Office and Magnet Wire. 

Insulators of every kind, including our NEW PORCELAIN 
INSULATORS. 

Ourbeautiful and effective MAIN LINE SOUNDER is still the 
best in use. Price (key on base), $22.50. 

Our POCKET RELAY is the best and cheapest made. Price 
$16.00. 

We keep in Stock a full line of American District material at 
prices that defy competition. Our new 

SELF-STARTMG AM) STOPPING REGISTER. 

BATTERY MATERIAL of every kind, including our cele- 
brated 

BALTIMORE BATTERY, 

Electric Bells, Annur.ciators for Hotels and Private Houses, 
Burglar Alarms. 

LEARNERS' INSTRUMENTS, 

FOR SCHOOLS, SHORT LINES AND STUDENTS 

No. 1. Outfit complete $8.00 

Key and Sounder 6.75 

Battery, per cell 1.25 

No. 2. Outfit complete 6.00 

Key and Sounder 5 00 

Battery, per cell 1.00 

When complete set purchased, Wire and Chemicals and Book 
of Instructions are included. Special quotations for large 
6 uan tities or schools. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 

just published. Contains useful knowledge for telegraphers 
and those who contemplate purchasing, with a reduced price list 
from which we will, till further notice, allow a discount of 20 
per cent, on instruments when sent C. O. D., or when cash ac- 
companies order. 

THE TELEGRAPHERS' MUTUAL 
BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

Established October 22, 1867. 

ITS OBJECT IS TO AID THE FAMILIES OF 
DECEASED MEMBERS, 

BY PAYMENT TO THE HEIRS OF $1,000. 

Any person who is, or who has been employed in telegraph 
service in any capacity, may become a member of this Associa- 
tion upon giving proof of good health and habits and payment 
of the required fees. 

INITIATION FEE, $2.00. 

Payments required: One Dollar upon the Death 
of each Member. 

Application blanks, copies of the By-Laws and other informa- 
tion furnished upon application to the Secretary, or any of the 
Agents. 

The attention of former members of the Association is called 
to the following resolution, passed at the last Annual Meeting 
of the Association : 

Resolved, That delinquent members shall be eligible to renewed 
membership on payment of back dues to an amount not exceed- 
ing five dollars, and vAthout further initiation fee. 

W. HOLMES, Secretary. J. D. REID, Treasurer. 

Box 3175, New York. 

N. B.— Members will please note change in number of Post 
Office Box. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic Views of the Operating Room 
and Switch of the New York Office have been taken and will be 
sold for the benefit of the Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation. 

REDUCED PRICES AS FOLLOWS : 

Operating Room, 10x14 inches $1 25 

8x10 " 75 

Switch, 8x10 75 

Stereoscopic" Views. 

Operating Room 35 

Switch __ 35 

Address orders for any of the" above to the Secretary of the 
Association. 



Jan. 20, 1811.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



13 



The Telegrapher 

p. JOURNAL OF 

ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. N. 














SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 20, 1871. 




VOL 


. XIII. 


•WHOLE No. 


549 



(DrifltaaJ &vtuU$. 

" His Nibs." 

A Character Sketch. 

By M. O'Reanon. 

CHAPTER II. 

{Continued from p. 8.) 

Jim gave " His Nibs " directions, which he advised 
him to follow, for the purpose of recovering the strength of 
batteries, as he said himself, and promised to give him for 
that purpose a mixture of his own invention, to be used 
according to instructions, which he should receive when 
he reached the city the next afternoon. Here was 
another practical joke apparent, for any one acquainted 
with Jim's character, and the character of a local bat- 
tery, knows very well how much improvement the for- 
mer could make on the latter; but, be that as it may, 
" His Nibs' " unbounded faith in all that his friend (?) 
said, carried him beyond all reasoning, and made him a 
badly abused pupil of experience. 

Jim had been gone about an hour when Barney re- 
sumed his accustomed squat on the coal box behind the 
stove, and lighting his pipe, settled himself for a comfort- 
able rest. 

"Well," said Barney, after a few minutes pause, "an' 
is that Funny Jem?" 

" That's him,'' replied Nibs, " What d'ye think of 
him?" 

" Well, begorra," said Barney, " He's a quare lookiu' 
gossoon, an' not sayin' that I'm mooch iv a jidge iv char- 
aether, but av yez take my advice ye'll lave whur he is, 
fur I think be his prate he's a schamer, an' he have a 
blink in his eye that'd prove it." 

" Oh ! I think you're mistaken, Barney. He's a good 
friend of mine. Why, he even took the trouble to come 
away out here to tell me about a job there's for me in the 
city." 

" Well," replied Barney, with a vigorous pull at his 
little black pipe, " Mebbe I am, an' mebbe I amn't, but I 
don't like his luks, an' that's th' wholly all about it. 
Plase yerself; ye know him betther nor I do, but ye can't 
plase me wid him." 

Nibs smiled, and turned to answer a call, while 
Barney busied himself with fixing the fire. 

The next afternoon found Nibs on time at the 
office in the city, where he was greeted by Jim and 
several others of his old acquaintance. He was escorted 
to a way wire, upon whicli were some fifteen or twenty 
stations, but very few messages, and with a gleam of 
satisfaction upon every feature, at once proceeded to 
clear the string. Scarcely had the last message left the 
hook when a blustering mite of an office boy came flying 
up, and with a loud "rush it!" filed a two hundred word 
message addressed to a Government official on board a 
certain train, and to be delivered on the train's arrival at 
a certain station. Nibs having got the office, hur- 
riedly grasped the document and began to pile it in at a 
terrific rate, doing his level best to make the register 
break. Suddenly his eye caught a queer looking combi- 
nation of vowels and consonants ; he stopped, made a few 
impatient dots, studied, went on to the next word, but it 
was as bad, and following on he discovered that the bal- 
ance of the message was composed of the same mysteri- 
ous matter. 

Here was a nice fix. Snatching up the message, he 
rushed over to an idle comrade and asked his assistance 
in deciphering its contents, but was referred to another, 
who in turn sent him to another, and so on until each 
and every man had contributed a share to the latest of 
"Funny Jim's" exploits. The last one referred him to 
the chief, whom he was informed he would find up stairs 
in the battery room. Up he went, butcould see nothing 
of him; then rushing frantically down stairs again, he 
went back to his desk amid the quiet titter of all who 
understood the affair. Vainly he endeavored to make 
out the horrible stuff, and anxiously glancing around in 
search of awl, he closed his key; then throwing himself 
back in his chair, he cast a long look of despair at the 
dingy ceiling. A minute had scarcely elapsed when the 
chief entered the room, and Nibs, concluding the ceil- 
ing could not assist him any in a solution of the chiro- 
graphical outrage, went for Mm. The chief, with a smile 



of suspicion, advised Nibs to be calm and resume his 
seat, telling him it was all right. The whole office was 
now in a perfect uproar, and even the office boys, who 
were lounging in a knot in the centre of the room, having 
got wind of the joke, began to rile him, giving him the 
full benefit of their stock of slang, and greeting him as he 
passed them with such selections as " Pipe th' Reuben," 
" Oh, what a dizzy pill !" etc. 

With characteristic fortitude our patient hero bore it 
all, and when his work was finished he quietly left the 
premises. Meeting "Funny Jim" outside the door, he 
related the circumstance, adding that he thought it a very 
clever piece of humor, but rather far fetched. Of course 
Jim pleaded ignorance of the whole affair, and by way 
of strengthening his defence, placed the thing to " Tip- 
pling Tom's" credit ; and knowing with what extreme 
hatred " His Nibs " regarded that individual, he was con- 
fident the assertion would clear himself of all blame. So, 
indeed, it did ; for he succeeded in placing in our hero's 
hands a bottle containing a mixture of his own, the com- 
ponent parts of which he appeared unwilling to make 
known, and merely giving him instructions to put a cer- 
tain amount of it into the locals each morning, assuring 
him that it would save him the trouble of cleaning and 
renewing them. He pointed out the good qualities con- 
tained in the decoction, and the great advantages to be 
derived through a proper use of it; of course he knew to 
whom he was telling it, and wasn't the least afraid of 
overstepping the bounds of common sense. Past expe- 
rience had given him a thorough knowledge of the nature 
of the individual he was addressing, and he therefore 
took no trouble to measure his words. After " Funny 
Jim " had finished his long rigmarole of scientific nonsense. 
and felt fully assured that he had successfully laid 
the foundation for another grand scheme to slrengthen 
his popularity with "the gang," he cordially shook hands 
with his victim and extended the usual invitation to a 
beer; but Nibs, glancing at a neighboring clock, de- 
clined, saying he had barely time to catch the train, but 
promising to arrange a visit to the city the following 
Saturday evening, when he should be pleased to have a 
barrel, Jim smiled, " His Nibs " laughed, and they parted. 

When Nibs reached his little box that evening he 
found Barney hard at work building a fresh fire. As he 
entered, the Hibernian, who strictly regarded punctuality 
as the soul of business, opened on him sDmething like 
this: 

" Well, Nubs (he'd heard the name some place be- 
fore), so ye've come at last. Begorra, thim ould ham- 
mers av yours are kickin' an' crackin' fur yez this hour. 
They had me nearly crazy, so I jisht tied thim down wid 
bits ov cord. Ye can relase thim now, an' av the fellah 
on the woires complains, blame yerself fur not bein' here 
till attind to thim. What th' divil kem over yez, any 
way, that kep' yez so late?" 

" Oh ! well, you know, Barney," said Nibs, smiling com- 
placently at the Irishman's plan of stopping the noise, 
" the boys wouldn't let me away. They're a solid crowd, 
and when they get a hold of an old member of " the 
gang " they're right in for givin' him a good send off. 
But I got away sober, you see." 

" So they're a solid crowd, are they ? Well, Nubs, yez 
may think so now, but thim that's gone before yez knows 
betther. We had as foine a young fellah here wan time 
as yez could mate, av yez were to thravel from this ti 
Divil's Hall Dure, an' begorra, the solid crowd, as yez call 
ihim, med a case ov him. He kem reeliu' in dhrunk to 
his work wan night an' sthretched himself on the flure. 
There wus orthers waitin' below for th' noight express, 
but she nivver got thim, an', to cut a long shtory shart, 
she jumped into a shlow freight jisht above us here, an' 
glory be t' God, there was tin o' thim kilt an' forty 
wounded! That's wan mark agin th' solid crowd. Th' 
poor bye himself wint nearly mad, an' he had a hard job 
iv it to clear himself, but shure as it was'n't known he 
had the loike in him he was let free. He wint away, an' 
I nivver heerd tell iv him since; so take my advice, me 
bucko, lave off wid yer solid crowd ; shtop whur ye are, 
quiet an' aisy, or mebbe ye'll fall into the same soort iv a 
thrap." 

Nibs listened to Barney's discourse with breathless 
attention, and, when it was finished, he heaved a sigh of 
relief, and endeavored to point out where his experience 
with the bottle had taught him how much more pleasure 
there was to be found in moderate gratification than in 
excessive indulgence. He boasted that he had stood as 
much of it as the best of them, and expressed himself as 
thoroughly able to hold his own against whiskey and its 
temptations. But the Colt was his elder, had seen more 
of the world, and, in fact, nearly became indignant at the 
attempt of his junior to display a greater knowledge of 
what Barney considered his native juice — although he 
himself never drew upon its soothing qualities for com- 
fort, or its hoaling power for strength. Ho was nothing 
more than a poor, simple son of Erin, doomed to earn his 
daily (or nightly) bread with the sweat of his brow, but 
at tho same time ho was able to teach Young America 
that whiskey would, to use his own words, " Damn the 
divil himself." He was able, and willing too, to point 
out what he knew of the road to ruin, and he prided him- I 



self on knowing enough of it to warrant whatever ho 
said — for, said he, "I thravelled on it till I kem to a rise 
in it where I could see beyant, an' I knew av I wint 
down th' other side I'd nivver be able to climb back 
agin." 

Although the quaintness of Barney's remarks provoked 
many a smile upon Nibs's countenance, their earnest tone 
drove them deep into his mind, and he began to reflect 
upon their soundness. Of course, " Funny Jim " was a 
good, whole souled fellow, and a very genial compan- 
ion. In fact, all the boys had contributed a share to his 
enjoyment and happiness; but did not this poor Irish- 
man's words of advice, though plaiuly spoken, contain 
more actual friendship? 

Strange that this poor man should profess such a deep 
interest in his welfare, when those with whom he had 
been accustomed to associate, and whom he regarded as 
his best friends, never gave utterance to nor even hinted 
such things. Had the sunny days of Barney's life de- 
parted without leaving behind them some pleasant mem- 
ory of their existence, and was he now seeking consolation 
for their loss, through an endeavor to put a damper on 
Nibs's fun, by a series of wholesome lectures and scraps 
of advice? Or was it really a heartfelt desire to see him 
progress in the right path that prompted them? He 
could not go back on the bhoys, and yet this man's words 
were too plain to be construed to any other meaning than 
the latter. 

Thus it was that Nibs reflected. He was astride the 
wall of indecision, and the slightest breath of influence 
from either side would toss him into the field of future 
action. Barney's story of the night express horror had 
left a great impression upon his mind, and pictures of the 
terrible consequences of such wilful neglect of duty con- 
stantly presented themselves to his imagination ; but then 
he balanced these thoughts with the idea that he was 
proof against such strong temptations, and managed to 
find material for defence, though weak, against the logi- 
cal though rudely expressed doctrines of his newly made 
friend. He would, however, give both sides of the ques- 
tion a fair test, and adopt the stronger as the safer. 



CHAPTER III. 

At last Nibs found a favorable opportunity to try 
" Funny Jim's " preparation for strengthening the locals. 
It was about two o'clock in the morning, and everything 
was clear on the line — at least so far as he was con- 
cerned. Barney, who was outside discussing the politi- 
cal situation, was called in to witness the test, and, 
after submitting to a long dissertation from Nibs upon 
the theory of local batteries, proceeded to empty the 
jars and fill them up with fresh water, preparatory to in- 
troducing the liquid. 

Now, Nibs had a natural curiosity to find out all 
about everything he saw in the way of chemistry, and 
he delighted in relating his many hairbreadth escapes 
from violent death whenever he could gain a listener. 
The narrowest escape he ever bad was a fall from the 
top of the garret stairs to the bottom, caused by taking 
too heavy a smell of a bottle of old hartshorn, which he 
found among a lot of old medicine bottles up in theatric, 
where his mother had strictly forbidden him to go. 

"She would alius have it it wuz disobedience that 
tumbled me," said Nibs, " but I kuow it wuz the harts- 
horn." 

Still, the many warnings he had received did not affect 
his search for knowledge. He was as curious as ever, 
and determined to see what the bottle he held in his 
hand contained. First he placed several drops upon a 
sheet of paper and examined them closely. Then he 
poured a very small portion into a half a glass of clear 
water and gazed through it at the light, but neither of 
these tests proved it to be anything more than an oily 
liquid of a yellowish tinge. At last our hero, perplexed, 
though not in the least discouraged, conceived the idea 
of trying the effects of heat. Barney, who had entered 
in the meantime, was busily occupied in regulating the 
quantity of water in each of the jars. Nibs, standing 
beside the stove and immediately behind Barney, slowly 
raised the bottle, to allow a few drops to fall upon the 
top of the stove, when the Celt suddenly raised himself 
from his stooping posture, and striking Nibs' uplifted 
arm, tilted the bottle almost upside down, causing 
nearly the whole contents to fall upon the stove, which 
was red hot at the time. A frightful explosion followed, 
knocking the Irishman one way and tho inquisitive stu- 
dent of chemistry the other. A puff of heavy, thick, 
black smoke shot quickly upward, followed by a single 
tongue-like flame of blood-red fire, that ascended with 
lightning rapidity to the dry roof. A half second more 
and the active son of the Ould Dart was on his feet, dash- 
ing the water from the battery jars upon the burning 
coiling, whilst poor Nibs danced around in search of re- 
lief for his burned hand. A delay of two minutes and 
the shanty was doomed, but, thanks to the timely and 
untiring efforts of the switch tender, it escaped with no 
more serious damage than a hole in the roof. Tho bal- 
auoo of the night was spent in repairing and fixing tho 
place, and when they left in the morning it was gener- 



14 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[Jan. 20, 181 T. 



ally understood that the fire originated from the sparks 
of a passing locomotive — a cause freshly created in Bar- 
ney's fertile brain. 

The next evening Barney and Nibs were sitting qui- 
etly in their accustomed seats in the shanty ; the former 
quietly enjoying the luxury of his " little ould dudheen " 
behind the stove, and the latter tenderly nursing his ban- 
daged hand and gazing into the fire. The place wore an 
aspect of serenity, and, indeed, to the casual observer it 
betrayed no sign that it had ever been the scene of such 
disorder as had prevailed during the night previous. 
Fully five minutes had elapsed before either of the occu- 
pants ventured a remark, when Barney, shrugging his 
massive shoulders and drawing himself closer to the 
stove, opened the conversation. 

"Well, Nubs, how's the hand?" he inquired. "Be 
me sowl but yez kem a-near losin' yer head that time, 
eh?" 

" Tou bet !" responded Nibs, shuddering as he thought 
what a lesson such a loss would teach. 

"I'd give a good deal to find out what that stuff was, 
though, he added. 

" Well, it's mighty foine fur sthartin' a fire ; where did 
yez come across it?" 

" Why, my friend ' Funny Jim ' gave it to me when I 
was in town the other day. He told me he made it him- 
self, and that it was the best thing in the world for bat- 
teries. But I never saw it used anywhere before. 

"No, sur!" quickly exclaimed Barney ; "an' I'll tell ye 
I've a sthrange notion the devil a wan batthery ' Funny 
Jim ' ivver med it fur, aither. I'm thinking it's anither 
jab on yez ; an', wanst an' fur all, Nubs, av yez don't 
give over them fellahs they'll make a sorry example iv 
yez. Shure I know the young fellahs that's gone before 
yez, that ped dearly fur the thricks iv such lads. How 
do yez know but av yez had put that infernal mixther 
into the battheries last night it would have blew us, 
shanty an all, out o' the windy ? an' mebbe that's what 
they wur waitin' to see. Bad cess to them for a set iv 
villians. I tell yez now, lave off wid yer 'gangs,' and 
sthop whar yez are. There's a nice little daughter iv 
Widdy Mulligan's, there below, has her eye on yez, an' 
sorra a finer girl from this to herself. Then there's me- 
self an' the ould 'oman'd be glad to see yez ivry Sunday, 
av yez like to come an' see us. Arrah, man alive ! shure 
yez cud enj'y yerself there, for-by spindin' yer time an' 
money wid thim thaivin' blackguards, that wouldn't put 
a bit across yer teeth to-morra av yez wurstharvin'," and, 
glancing at his ponderous timepiece, Barney passed out 
to his post at the switch; for a train then due, leaving 
Nibs to reflect on the wisdom of the counsel just given. 

Our hero sat motionless, staring vacantly into the 
bright red fire, and apparently wrapt in thought. He 
weighed well every word he had heard from the lips of 
the one whom he now began to regard as the best friend 
he had ever met, and before Barney returned Nibs had 
thought the whole matter over and concluded to follow 
his advice. The next day was Saturday and pay day. 
He remembered his engagement with "Funny Jim," and 
resolved to break it. He would only spend all his earn- 
ings, as he had done many, many times before, and then 
the trying ordeal of a sick headache and general nauseous 
feeling would have to be gone through with, and all for 
one night's pleasure (?). And not only that, this man 
had been playing him all along. The proofs that he had 
but a few hours before been willing to accept as evidences 
of "Funny Jim's" friendship now presented themselves 
to his mind in a different light. Where before he had 
looked upon " Funny Jim's " actions as mere liberties of 
friendship, he now regarded them as deeds that no true 
friend would be guilty of. He even felt kindlier now 
towards " Tippling Tom," because his susceptibility had 
softened his mind to impressious which led him to believe 
the other to be the prime mover — the ruling power in all 
the indignities heaped upon him. Fortune now favored 
him by opening his eyes to these facts, and whatever 
strength of will he lacked in carrying out his resolutions 
would be supplied from the inexhaustible fund of his 
" Hibernian guardian angel." He condescended to favor 
" Funny Jim" with a letter, stating it would not only be 
impossible for him to fulfil his appointment on the next 
evening, but gave him to understand that he desired no 
further connection with him in any way, adding that the 
reason was too obvious in itself to require any details. 
Of course, Jim ascribed it all to a complete success of his 
last joke, and used the letter as testimony in favor of all 
he said, when delighting " the gang" with a recital of his 
comical exploits. 

On the other hand, Nibs contented himself in the small 
circle of his newly made friends at the junction, and 
found more pleasure in sitting in their midst, especially 
when Barney's ould 'oman would condescend to favor 
the assembly with yards upon yards of superstitious yarn. 
And Barney himself, crowded up into one corner, puffing 
great clouds of consolation from the black, ugly stump of 
an old " T. D.," with many a wistful glance at our hero 
would smile and appear the picture of true contentment 
and happiness. 

Thus was "His Nibs" saved from that abyss of ruin 
and degradation into which so many have been pushed by 



the evil associates to be found in all classes of society, 
all grades of the human family, at all times, in all places, 
and under all circumstances, where the force of will is 
lacking, or the strong arm of friendship offers no protec- 
tion. Now that he has passed out of the danger element 
into a brighter sphere, we will bid our hero farewell, and 
trust he will find fresher and brighter flowers in his new 
path. Nor should his benefactor be forgotten, for let it 
be remembered there's many a true, honest heart beats 
beneath a ragged coat ; and it is to be hoped that Bar- 
ney, the switch-tender, will some day find the proof of 
what he firmly believes — " That a good action hath its 
own reward." 

The End. 



John Oakum. 



Mr. Geo. Cumming republishes the Telegraphist arti- 
cle on Oakum Pickings in his last letter to the Indianapo- 
lis Saturday Herald, with the following preface : 

" The English press are so universally opposed to say- 
ing a good word for their cousins on this side of the 
water, and generally so stupid when they do say it, that 
it is quite exhilarating to read the London Telegraphist 
in its amiable criticism of the latest work from the pen of 
a well known humorist." 

Mr. Cumraing forgets, however, that the Britons were 
particularly fond of Artemus Ward, and, also, quite take 
to Mark Twain, although it must be confessed that they 
hesitate some time before they can see through American 
jokes. But in the end they find it " awfully jolly, you 
know;" yet, perhaps, Josh Billings' vague Lecture on 
Milk would never penetrate their craniums. 



and if any of the telegrams described in the subpcena 
could be found, he would be most happy (he assured the 
House, with his hand on his heart) to oblige it by submit- 
ting the despatches. It is the unhappy fate of this ma- 
jority that it blunders with everything it takes in hand. 
The public has one consolation, however, its days are 
almost over. — New York Commercial Advertiser. 



®$tvt%\nti&t\xtf. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Eugene F. Phillips. — Electrical Supplies. 

The question of insulation has always been one of 
great importance to telegraph men. With the progress 
of science, and especially of practical telegraphy, the 
methods of insulation have been greatly improved, until at 
present they are far ahead of what they were some years 
ago. Numerous devices have been invented for the se- 
curing of perfect insulation, some of them very success- 
ful ; and a large number of very meritorious ones were 
shown in the appropriate section of the Main Building. 
None of these, however, have met with so much ap- 
proval, both while on exhibition and under the condi- 
tions of actual practice, as the patent insulation devised 
by Eugene F. Phillips, of Providence, R. I., and shown 
by him at N. 51, Main Building. Mr. Phillips showed 
patent finished insulated wire, patent rubber-covered 
wire, magnet wire, and patent electric cordage and 
cables. Mr. Phillips's braided wire attracted much at- 
tention from experts, and was pronounced by all of 
them to be the best they had ever seen. They can be 
furnished in any desired color or plaids. The rubber- 
covered wire shown will not crack, and is not affected 
by ordinary extremes of heat or cold. The rubber cover- 
ing is of uniform thickness, and the wire will be found 
in the exact centre, a result which secures uniformity 
of insulation, and which has not hitherto beeu produced. 
Cables can be made to order of any number of conduc- 
tors, at the regular price for the same number of single 
wires. The magnet wires shown were made by new and 
improved machinery, and have been found to be as per- 
fect for all purposes as any made. The wire used by Mr. 
Phillips is made for him specially, and is subjected to va- 
rious processes and tests, which secure its being the best 
in the market. The merits of the wires made by Mr. 
Phillips have been generally acknowledged wherever in- 
troduced, and their extension of trade has been very 
great, they now being in use all over the Union. The 
" Office " wire which he shows, and also the "Insulated 
Line Wires," were awarded the first premium over the 
heads of many competitors at the Cincinnati Exposition 
of 1874. To this Mr. Phillips has now added another 
honor, having taken a diploma of the very highest merit 
at the great Exhibition just over. The Jury of Award 
made a most flattering report on his exhibit, and the 
diploma speaks in most commendatory words of the great 
insulating power which his goods developed. His Pat- 
ent Flexible Gas Light Tubing was also included in the 
award. The address is Eugene F. Phillips, 67 Stewart 
street, Providence, R. I. — Boston Journal of Commerce. 



A New Telegraph Line. — Changes and 
Personals. 

Wilmington, N. O, Jan. 10. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

I would not fill your columns with communications, 
but it seems that no one else will write from these parts, 
and I know there are many operators who have worked 
here who will be glad to hear from here. Mr. L. A. 
Angel is our manager, and has been here for the past 
twelve years. The operating force consists of Messrs. 
Topping, Brown, Williams, Gentry and Bunting. 

" Frank " Williams visited Charlotte, N. C, about a 
month since, and returned bringing with him a pretty 
and accomplished bride. 

Mr. L. A. Angel has under construction a new line 
from Lumberton, N C, to Fayetteville, N. C, which 
will bring that town into telegraphic communication with 
the rest of the world again, and be a great accommoda- 
tion to many of our largest cotton firms here who have 
branch houses in that town. 

N. E. Bunting has been appointed manager at Fayette- 
ville, and many are the young ladies here who will re- 
gret the non-appearance of his smiling face amongst 
them as of old. R. J. Mcllhenny will fill his position in 
this office. " Mac " appreciates the honor. 

The recent sleet storms were very damaging to our 
lines, but I am glad to say they are all 0. K. once more. 

Ed. Williams, late- of the S. & A. Charlotte, N. C, 
office, is now operator in superintendent's office here of 
the C. C. Railway Co. 

Mr. J. W. Watkins, formerly manager S. & A. Peters- 
burg, Va., office, has been assigned to duty in the Char- 
lotte, N. O, W. U. office. 

G. W. Pollock, from this State, late manager S. & A., 
Spartanburg, S. C, holds forth for the W. U. at the same 
place. 

J. J. Keegan, of Gordonsville, Va. (one of the S. & A.), 
is now with the W. U. at Montgomery, Ala. 

To "Ky" W. — Brown has not received the eggs. 
Please telegraph why. Sig. " Q." One Arm. 



Tally Another. 

Mr. Barnes, erstwhile manager of the Western Union 
Telegraph office at New Orleans, yesterday made a laugh- 
ing stock of the majority in the House of Representa- 
tives. Humiliating as it is to confess it, this is not an 
unusual occurrence. In the last year the House of Rep- 
resentatives has, to draw it as mildly as possible, made 
itself ridiculous many times, but seldom has the capabil- 
ity for blundering been so conspicuously displayed as 
yesterday, when Mr. Barnes complacently told the House 
that he had resigned his office as Superintendent of the 
New Orleans office. If he were returned to the office, 



Easy Times for Grand Trunk Operators Ended. — 

Personals. — An Operator's Experience 

with a Fire Extinguisher. 

Detroit, Mich., Jan. 3. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

Considerable excitement and interest has been mani- 
fested over the recent strike of engineers on the Grand 
Trunk Railroad, which came to an amicable settlement 
to-day. Telegraphers on that line, who have been having 
things all their own way, have again settled down to 
business, and their musical "Ux" and "Dx" are once 
more heard in the land. By the way, this same G. 
Twine in this office was a great wonderment to us when 
we first came here. Thought we had got into England 
or on the Continent without our knowledge, or that the 
ro^d had adopted an alphabet of their own manufacture, 
to prevent outsiders from knowing their business ; but by 
diligent attention for seven years we are now able to get 
one word out of ten in general business ; but when they 
start in on train orders we are gone. 

Our old friend, Geo. Read, called on us the other day. 
He is looking well and happy, and says married life is 
" smence." He and his bride are visiting relatives in 
this city. He intends to return to Boston shortly to con- 
tinue his musical studies. 

Old " Si " (George Singleton), late of this office, now 
working for the A. and P. at Milwaukee, passed through 
here on New Tear's day on his way to his home at Sar- 
nia, on a visit to relatives, so he says; but the boys 
think it's to get one more glimpse of his girl. How he 
got through is a mystery to us, owing to he strike on the 
G. T., unless he metamorphosed himself into an iceboat 
and sailed up the river. 

J. M. Sutton, formerly assistant train despatcher for 
the Mich. Central at Jackson, and now manager of the 
Battle Creek W. U. office, was married January 1st to 



Jan. 20, 181*1.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



15 



Miss Carrie Sanford, of Jackson, Mich. Jim is a nice 
fellow and very popular. He and his companion have 
the best wishes of all for their future happiness. 

We had a little fun all to ourselves the other afternoon. 
A Babcock Extinguisher has recently been introduced 
into the operating department, and one of " our foreign 
relations," on the Montreal line, seemed to be consider- 
ably " put out" because be couldn't comprehend how 
that thing could "put out" a fire. His cogitations on 
this subject culminated in a desperate resolution. Re- 
membering that " the name of the adventurous youth 
who fired the Ephesian dome outlives that of the pious 
fool who reared it," he rashly seized the handle of the 
machine and with reckless temerity turned it down, and 
then the fun commenced. The stream issued from the 
pipe with a force denoting a pressure of 2,000 pounds to 
the square inch, and scattered itself promiscuously over 
books, papers, etc. He seized the handle again and 
turned it back ; but, though the thing was very active, 
unfortunately for the bold youth, it was not retro-active. 
He then seized the nozzle, but inadvertently aiming it at 
a small boy who stood near by with open mouth gazing 
upon this novel exhibition, that diminutive specimen of 
humanity was, for a moment, supposed to have been 
annihilated. The gyrations and contortions of the bold 
adventurer were simply wonderful, and would win him 
name and fame as a professional gymnast. Finally 
Nick, the battery man, came to the rescue, and shoul- 
dering the "firey, untamed monster" carried it away to 
waste its sweetness on the desert air elsewhere. The 
chief actor in this exciting drama subsided into the 
depths of an easy chair, muttering, "Take any other 
shape but that and my firm nerves will never tremble." 
Somebody fanned him quietly with a feather and the 
curtain dropped. S. Quills. 



The Atlantic and Pacific Business and Employes.— 
Notes of a Trip over the A. & P. Lines West. 

Rochester, N. T., Jan. 8. 
To the Editor or The Telegrapher. 

Although this is truly " the winter of our discontent," 
which in due time we hope will be made "glorious sum- 
mer," there seems to be no reason why Rochester should 
be behind in sending to your ever welcome journal a few 
dots and dashes, which shall inform your readers in re- 
gard to telegraph matters in this vicinity. 

Telegraphic business keeps good for the time of the 
year — much better, in fact, than last year, and, if any- 
thing, is on the increase, and no reductions of force or 
pay is known hereabouts. Both the Atlautic and Pacific 
and Western Union offices in this city are in Reynolds' 
Arcade, but the A. and P. brass pounders have the advan- 
tage of their competitors, being on the ground floor, 
while the latter are up stairs ; and while they take in the 
fair sex as they pass to and fro (the fairest count made 
yet), the latter have small chance at anything exce pt an 
occasional lawyer, or other parties whom business may 
call to the more elevated regions. 

The management of the Atlantic and Pacific office and 
interests here continue under that genial gentleman, Mr. 
T. J. Smith, who is ably assisted by Mr. T. C. Eipper, 
chief operator, late of Auburn fame — and hair. E. got 
off a shocking bad one at " Evangeline " last week. 
"Yanges" has blonde, curly hair. E. said it reminded 
him of Skaneatelles. We puzzled and cudgeled our brains 
over this for some time, but finally gave up the conun- 
drum. The answer was, " Because it was next to Au- 
burn." Breeze, our repairer, at once made tracks for the 
dye works. 

Two branch offices have been opened in the city by the 
A. and P. Co. — one at the Brocket House and the other 
at the Whitcombe House. The former is under Mr. W. 
Stupp, an "old timer," and the latter under Admiral 
Porter. 

Christmas and New Years are again numbered with 
the past, and our messenger boys, " the Mulcahy twins," 
took advantage of the former and made Manager Smith 
a present of a new tile — 9 " cases " at that. He, the man- 
ager, is now often taken for Tupper. The boys' New 
Year's stocking amounted to $60 — not a bad take for 
these days. 

A short time since your correspondent visited Buffalo, 
the great lake shore town, and, of course, visited the A. 
and P. office. The first person seen was Mr. G-. H. 
Bowker, under whose management the office has increased 
in business and importance tenfold, and the ball is still 
kept moving. " Fatty " Moore still does the wire manip- 
ulation for the Dominion Telegraph Co. at Buffalo, and is 
as fat and saucy as of yore. Perhaps you would scarcely 
believe it, but this gentleman has, over and over again, 
been taken for George Rignold, Henry the Fifth king 
masher. 

After paying my respects to the management I inter- 
viewed the Knights of the Key. Tom Dudloy's noble 
Southern face looms up, who gets his work in on the 
heavy " C. H." wire, generally greeting "q" in circuit 
with " ready, let her go." Stetzalter sits still duplexing 
" blocks" by the 100, ably assistod on the other side, re- 



ceiving, by Powers. It's a race between Powers and Ed. 
Sterling which can spot " Mathew " or his brothers first. 
The last heard was that " Ed." had the pole and was 
leading " P. O." 

Billy Roche rushes the N. Y. business just as quiet as 
a June bug. D. K. Ayre talks of going to Albany. 
What will the poker table do ? What the boys miss in 
him O. N. Thompson will make up. It is said that a 
young lady in Buffalo is making Thompson a pair of slip- 
pers in the skating rink, and will finish the toes out of 
the window. Dick Collins says that they will never fit 
him. " O. N." says he will put them up and " call" on 
them " 2 duces." Al. Bab. works with Mankins on the 
Detroit wire; Davey and Terry " terrify " the Kanucks. 

Mr. F. Van Yalkenbergh is chief overseer of the poor 
at the switch, and repairers shower their New Year's 
blessings on his head. 

Leaving " Bu," I take a skip up the Lake Shore road, 
look down with horror at Silver Creek, but beam smil- 
ingly upon Billy Wells, at Dunkeith, and pass an hour 
with Ross Knight at " W. T." Knight is said to have 
the finest collection of foreign coins and bull purps in the 
West. 

Geo. W. Chaffee, better known as the " Woodpecker 
from Erie," does the honors for the A. & P. at Erie office. 
Pat Donohue, the repairer, puts in his spare time playing 
the piano and rolling ten pius. 

Here I rest for the week, bat in my next will tell your 
readers further about my trip west and east over the lines 
of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co., which are now 
in better shape than ever before, the late storms not lay- 
ing them out for an hour. But if I don't stop some of 
your readers will think I am a Bulldozer. 

P. S. Later. — Ed. Sterling was seen going up Main 
street, Buffalo, incog., with Mathew — "P. O." — out of 
wind in the rain. 



Ambiguous Report of the P. and R. R. R. 

Telegraphers' Doings. 

Fortinbrod, Jan. 9. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

What has become of "46?" Has " Cak " "annihi- 
lated " him, or has " the obliging at " " Do " been bull- 
dozing him a little? It doze not seem very probable he 
has, though, for he is too careful to bull and has no time 
to be dozing, for he peggs away all day as steadily as if 
every minute was to be his last. I think it very likely 
" 46 " of to-day is abandoned. 

The annual election of officers on " Do " wire took 
place last week. Mr. P. J. Flynn was chosen Pres't ; 
Mr. J. R. Pott, Sup't, and Mr. H. C. Beunet, Board of 
Directors. Mr. Bennet is charged with intimidating a 
number of the stockholders in order to secure his elec- 
tion. 

Mr. Potato — exacting superintendent, perhaps — has 
had the matter under investigation. He is now preparing 
his report, which may be an item of news stew give you 
next week, if it is not laid on the table, through the pres- 
sure of other business. 

A sale of the " Owls " on " 32 " took place last Thurs- 
day night, which fairly rivalled the wholesale vendue of 
the readers of the Pottsville Miners' 1 Journal on Saturday 
last. 

Messrs. Bluejay Flynn and Penny Lyndall were the 
auctioneers, under the management of "an extra fm Dc," 
with Mr. Stadler, of " Cy " as clerk. 

The " 19 " articles knocked off every half hour were in 
very brisk demand, but the majority were sold very 
cheap, owing, probably, to the highly important discovery 
by Mr. Hughes, of " Ro," that " 32 " was not grounded 
south at " Mb. u 

The keen acuteness and the lightning-like rapidity 
with which Mr. Hughes scented danger, and the agitated 
promptness with which he warned his fellow laborers at 
" Mx " on " 33," was highly commendable and deserves 
the most unqualified praise. It was fully equalled, how- 
ever, by the remarkable zeal displayed by Mr. Faust, of 
Danville, in scraping acquaintance with " the extra fm 
Dc." 

The rare tact, indomitable perseverance and Yankee- 
like ingenuity exercised by Mr. Faust in plying the 
"extra fm Dc " with his curious inquiries, and the 
sweetly confiding and child-like innocence exhibited 
while misleading and befuddling him, has seldom been 
surpassed, and ranks Mr. Faust, with his gigantic intel- 
lect, among the brightest and sharpest observers along 
the line. But for the earnest and well timed exertions 
of these gentlemon the auction would undoubtedly havo 
proven a failure. It is understood a box of cigars, the 
net profits arising from the sale, will shortly be dis- 
tributed among those initiated in the mysterios of the 
above, which is intended to be a truthful report, but in a 
few of the facts the writer fears he may have 

Sinned. 



New Patents. 

HP™ Official Copies of any U. 8. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications, and claims in full, 
sent free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, 
Elizabeth, N. J. 

For the week ended Dec. 5, 1876, and bearing that date. 



Five thousand new subscribers to The Tpileurai'IIER 
wanted immediately. 



7,415.— Electro-Therapeutic Baths.— J. W. Moliere, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Patent No. 162,091, dated April 13, 1875. [Piled 
November 9, 1876.] 

1. The combination of the metallic lined chamber A, having 
a lid composed of the sections M N O, slide P, coiled pipe P and 
electric pile plates g, substantially as herein shown and de- 
scribed. 

2. The system of heating pipes P, in combination with the 
series of plates of opposite electric character, substantially as 
and for the purpose set forth. 

3. The heaters or pipes P, interposed between the series of 
negative and positive electro plates g, in combination with the 
slatted or open floor H and the chamber A, substantially as and 
for the purpose set forth. 

4. The system of heating pipes P and positive ana negative 
plates g g\ in combination with the copper bottom and zinc 
plate lining of the chamber A, the same being brought into 
electric relations with the plates g g\ by means of the heaters 
P, substantially as specified. 

5. The adjustable or stationary sponge cushion or pad S, in 
combination with the zinc and copper lining of the door, and 
the positive and negative plates g g\ substantially as and for 
the purpose specified. 

6. The sponge cushion or pad S, in combination with the foot 
rest K and positive and negative plates g g\ substantially as 
and for the purpose set forth. 

For the -week ended Dec. 12, 1876, and tearing that date. 

185,160.— Solutions for Galvanic Batteries. — Louis Bastet, 
Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to Elihu K. Pettit, same place. 
[Piled August 30, 1876.] 

1. The compound resulting from dissolving bichromate of 
potassa in nitric acid, in the manner described, so as to produce 
the saturation of the latter by the former, by which saturation, 
and the resulting decomposition and recomposition, nitro 
chromic acid is formed in an economical manner. 

2. The application of the compound, in the proportion of 
about one ounce of the compound to one pound of sulphuric 
acid of the strength of 45° Baume, in each porous cup of a gal- 
vanic battery, for the purpose of increasing and prolonging the 
intensity and durability of the battery, and preventing or retard- 
ing local action when the circuit is broken. 

185,164. — Electric Stop Motions for Cotton Machinery. — 
John Bullough, Acrington, England. [Piled September 1, 
1876.] 

1. The combination, in fiber preparing machinery, with the 
ordinary rolls, or with an ordinary roll and a series of rollers 
having a common spindle, one of the rolls or series of rolls 
being insulated, of an electric circuit, whose terminals are at 
such rolls or roll and series of rolls, and which controls alarm 
or stopping apparatus, or both, the rolls coming together and 
closing the circuit upon the breaking of the fiber, substantially 
as set forth. 

2. The gravitating instruments or feelers, numbered 41 (see 
figs. 10 and 10a). when mounted on a common axis and resting 
on the fiber, in connection with the pole of a battery, the thick- 
ness of the fiber being utilized for preventing the completion of 
the electric current by separating the feelers from the rolls. 

3. The stop rod 8, or its equivalent gearing lever 9, constructed 
and applied for the purpose of breaking the electric current, in 
the manner and by the means herein shown and described. 

4. In electric stop motions for cotton preparing machinery or 
similar machinery, the described mode of keeping clean the 
metallic surfaces which are to be brought into contact to com- 
plete the circuit, when a break occurs, by means of the fiber 
passing between them while under treatment. 

5. The combination, with stop motions for cotton preparing 
and similar machinery for treating fibrous material, of rollers, 
between which the fiber passes, making a metallic connection 
to complete an electric circuit. 

6. The automatic full can stop motion, operating by the press- 
ure of the accumulated sliver in the can, to lift a pin or its 
equivalent to complete the circuit and stop the mechanism, sub- 
stantially as shown and described. 

185,294.— Electric Annunciators. — F. S. Carter, Burlington, 
N. J. [Filed October 25, 1876.] 
In an electric annunciator, indicating mechanism controlled 
at intervals by magnets, substantially as and for the purposes 
set forth. 

185,355.— Signal Apparatus and Circuits for Alarm Tele- 
graphs.— Wm. H. Sawyer, New York, N. Y. [Piled Sep- 
tember 29, 1874.] 

1. The combination, with automatic signaling apparatus, sub- 
stantially of the kind described, of a differential magnet having 
one coil in a circuit containing alarm apparatus, and the other 
coil in a circuit containing a resistance, substantially as shown 
and described. 

2. The combination, with automatic signaling apparatus, sub- 
stantially such as described, of a circuit divided at the locality 
to be signaled from or guarded, one branch containing the auto- 
matic alarm apparatus and one coil of a differential magnet, and 
the other a suitable resistance, substantially as shown and de- 
scribed. 

3. In a signal box arranged to be manually or automatically 
operated, the combination, with the circuit wheel and means 
for automatically releasing the same, of a stop device, substan- 
tially as shown, allowing a definite number of rotations of the 
circuit wheel, so as to distinguish between the ordinary and 
automatic signals, substantially as set forth. 

4. The combination of a circuit breaking wheel C, a magnet 
M, and its armature N, a stop c' g\ and an arresting device P, 
whereby the number of revolutions of said circuit breaking 
wheel may be regulated after it has been released by the action 
of said magnet upon its armature. 

5. The combination of the screw or worm I, provided with the 
stop r, the follower P», the slide or check rod E, stop c\ and 
circuit breaking wheel C, substantially as specified. 

6. The slide or check rod E, in combination with the contact 
points «i e-, shunt circuit 3 4 8, and electro-magnet or sounder S, 
substantially as specified. 

7. The combination of the stop E2 with the slide or check rod 
E of the signaling mechaniHiii. 

8. The combination of the electro magnet M, detent J, rod II, 
contact points mm\ and shunt circuit 1 2, substantially as speci- 
fied. 



16 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[Jan. 20, 1871. 



The Telegrapher 

Devoted to the Interests 

OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC ^FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1877. 



THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY 

At 20 COETLANDT STEEET, Eoom 5. 



THIRTEENTH VOLUME. 



TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

" THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES „ FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United Stetes and 
Dominion of Canada. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 

RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil) each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 60 

One Half Column, " •• 4 00 

OneColumn, " '• 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more Insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty pee Cent 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any persons sending the names and money for four Sub- 
scribers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per 
year, will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
3hangk in their address, must always send their old as 
well as their new address. 

Remittances lor subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of Dot less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Communications must be addressed to 



P. O. Box 5503.) 



J. H. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

20 COMTLANDT ST., New York. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISING PAGES. 

page. 

American Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph , .'" iv. 

Ashley.J.N - "... ii, iii, vi. 

Bishop Gutta Percha Works n. 

Bliss, George H. & Co ■> j. 

Brooks, David ii. 

Buell, M. A., & Sons i. 

Chester, Charles T vi. 

Day, A. G iii. 

Electric R. R. Signal Company ii. 

Lannert & Decker ii. 

Moore, Joseph & Sons i. 

Merchants' Manufacturing and Construction Co vi. 

Norris, James L vi. 

Partrick & Carter iii. 

Phillips, Eugene F i. 

Protection Life Insurance Co ii. 

Russell Brothers i. 

Shiras, J. O. & Co i. 

The' Leclanche Battery Company iii. 

Tillotson, L. G. & Co v. 

Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association v. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Co i, iii, v, vi. 

Wallace* Sons i. 

Watts & Co v. 

Williams, Charles. Jr i. 



The Telegrapher mat be had at the news stand in 
the Receiving Office of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, corner of Broadway and Dey street, where it is 
regularly on sale. 

The Charges for Telegraph Service. 

There are three classes interested in the charges for 
telegraph service. The first is the company, or owners of 
the lines, the second the employes, who depend upon 
their compensation for a livelihood, and the third the pub- 
lic, who use telegraphic facilities to a greater or less ex- 
tent. In some respects these interests are mutual, in 
others, to some extent, perhaps, may be regarded as an- 
tagonistic. 

The telegraph business, like other business, is, or 
should be carried on for the purpose of obtaining a profit 
for those who invest their money in establishing the 



lines. The rate of charges, which, after defraying the 
cost of conducting the business and maintaining the prop- 
erty, will afford a reasonable return for the capital in- 
vested, is of course the proper one. The difficulty is to 
ascertain what scale of charges will do this, and, there- 
fore, reductions have been, except in cases of fierce com- 
petition, gradual. It is essential that, before too radical 
reductions be made, the effect of such reductions upon 
the receipts shall be ascertained. A too high scale of 
charges would undoubtedly limit the amount of business 
done, while one that was too low might make it impossi- 
ble to defray the necessary expenditures, leaving the 
question of dividends on capital out of the question. 
Even with the lines fully occupied, the charges may be 
so reduced as to prove unremunerative. 

The employes are vitally interested in this matter, for 
the amount of compensation they can obtain is largely 
dependent upon the pecuniary success which may attend 
the business. If charges to the public are made so low 
as to be unremunerative, the employes must suffer, 
whether they have any hand in fixing those charges or 
not. The end of a policy of undue reduction is bank- 
ruptcy, and in such a condition of telegraphic affairs sala- 
ries must be low, and payment for services rendered 
uncertain. 

The public, who patronize telegraphs, of course desires 
that the cost to it of the service should be as small as 
possible, and, therelore, reductions of telegraph charges 
are generally popular. It is a mistake, however, to sup- 
pose that it is for the best interests of even the patrons 
of telegraph hues that charges should be reduced below 
a remunerative basis. In that case the efficiency of the 
service would be impaired ; it would become unreliable, 
and the saving made in the prices paid would thus be 
more than offset by the loss and damage thereby caused. 
By the improvements in telegraph apparatus, the bet- 
ter construction and insulation of the lines, etc., the 
capacity of the lines for service has been considerably 
increased, and the comparative cost of doing the work 
decreased. The public have reaped the benefit of this in 
reductions from time to time of the tarifis of telegraph 
lines. These reductions would be inevitable in any 
event; lor even if it were possible to establish a practical 
telegraph monopoly, its managers would be compelled to 
make concessions to its patrons. 

Within the last year there have been very material 
reductions in the charges for telegraph service in this 
country. These have in part come from an established 
policy, which has been in operation for the last ten years, 
and in part from the active competition between the 
Western Union and the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph 
Companies. How much further they can be carried, 
without proving too damaging to the companies and their 
employes, is a problem which remains to be solved. 
Were its solution solely dependent upon the comparative 
results of such reductions upon the interests involved, 
there would no doubt be a pause. Other elements enter 
into the matter, however, which will influence the ac- 
tions of the managers of the companies, and may bring 
about still further reductions at any time. 

While we believe in affording to the public telegraph 
service at as cheap a rate as is consistent with the main- 
tenance of the lines, the proper compensation of the em- 
ployes, and reasonable remuneration to the capital in- 
vested, we should deprecate any concessions which will 
imperil these objects. 



The Oversupply of Telegraphic Labor. 

Although it is well known that the supply of tele- 
graphic labor has long been in excess of the demand, yet 
it is a fact worthy of attention that there has never been 
an excess of really first class operators. In telegraphy, 
as in other professions, there is always " room higher up." 
That is to say, that applicants for the more important and 
responsible telegraphic positions, properly qualified to 
fill them, seldom find a difficulty in obtaining situations. 
Of the lower grade of operators there is always more than 
sufficient to fill the available places. 

It is not unfrequent that operators, when the neces- 



sity for obtaining a more thorough knowledge of the art, 
and the science upon which it is based, is urged upon 
them, scoff at the idea that anything more than a fami- 
liarity with the mechanical part of the business will be of 
any advantage. Such persons, if they propose to make 
telegraphy a permanent occupation, are, to say the least, 
very foolish, and have no right to complain if they are 
retained in merely subordinate and inferior positions, and 
compensated accordingly. Whatever is worth doing at 
all is worth doing well ; and the more thorough the quali- 
fication, and the greater the ability possessed, the better 
the chance for obtaining permanent and paying positions. 
It is much better for a telegrapher to study, and apply 
himself or herself to obtaining a thorough knowledge of 
the profession, than to waste the time in frivolous, and not 
unfrequently harmful amusements and relaxation. In 
this country, at least, there is always the probability of 
advancement to the best positions, and those who qualify 
themselves therefor, and are industrious, faithful, and 
always on the lookout for improvement, will eventually 
find themselves reaping the benefit to which they are 
entitled. Thoroughness in any business, which is worth 
following at all, and the acquisition of knowledge and 
information, are of themselves a gratification and com- 
pensation, even if not immediately rewarded by advance- 
ment in position and salary. Every telegraph operator 
should aspire to rank as a really first class artist, and, 
should be satisfied with nothing less. Those who will . 
not do this must be content to occupy subordinate and 
inferior positions. 



Annual Reception of the New York Telegraphers' 
Association. 

The Third Annual Reception of the New York Tele- 
graphers' Association will take place at Trenor's Lyric 
Hall, Sixth avenue and Porty-second street, on Wednes- 
day evening next, the 24th inst. 

We are indebted to the Association for a complimen- 
tary ticket to the reception. The previous entertain- 
ments of the Association have been very successful and 
enjoyable, and special efforts have been made to insure 
that the one about to take place shall be even more so 
than on any similar occasion heretofore. The ball will 
commence at 9 o'clock P. M., and dancing will begin 
promptly at 10 o'clock. 

The following gentlemen compose the committees : 
floor. 
J. W. Burnham, G. K. Walcott, 

J. J. Guthridge, L. G. Clark, 

Charles A. Willis, E. C. Boileau, 

J. R. Beard, M. W. Boran, 

D. Harmon, Jr., E. J. Davin, 

S. E. French. 
reception. 
W. P. Phillips, Geo. W. Roberts, 

Clarence Gary, J. H. Townseud, 

P. Hauff, Thos. Breunun, 

Thomas P. Scully, P. L. Watson, 

Wm. Macintosh, W. J. Doian, 

J. H. Boynton. 



Congress and the Western Union Officials. 

i Both houses of Congress are still engaged in endeavor- 
ing to obtain possession of the originals of political mes- 
sages sent over the lines of the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, pending and subsequent to the Presiden- 
tial election. The proceedings had, and the progress 
made, will be found detailed in our news columns. 

Having thus far failed to obtain these messages from 
the officers and employes of the company, from whose 
custody and control they had been removed before the 
hunt for them commenced, the Senate Committee of In- 
vestigation on the Oregou Electoral College case has 
now summoned the executive committee of the company, 
and the members of that committee proceeded to Wash- 
ington on Wednesday last. It has been evident for some 
time that eventually, if the demand for these despatches 
were persisted in, the Executive Committee would have 
to be called upon, and it remains to be seen what the re- 
sult of this summons will be. If Congress is determined 



Jan. 20, 181?/] 



THE TELEGRAPHER, 



17 



that its orders shall be complied with, and the members 
of the executive committee, equally determined to defend 
the rights of the patrons of the lines, it would seem 
likely that the Sergeant-at-Arms will have the custody 
and company of the members of the committee until the 
fourth of March next ; and the President and executive 
committee, by stress of circumstances, being restricted to 
the Capitol, the headquarters of the company would 
necessarily be for the time established in Washington. 
At this time the members of the Executive Committee are 
not under arrest, but unless the required messages are 
produced we do not see how they can avoid joining Pre- 
sident Orton, and managers Barnes and Turner in the" 
kindly hospitalities of the Sergeant-at-Arms. 

The managers of the "Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany have made a strong attempt to secure its customers 
the privacy and confidential character to which their 
messages are entitled ; and it is to be hoped that the at- 
tention which has thus been attracted to the subject 
will lead to such legislation as shall clearly define the 
rights, duties and obligations of telegraph companies and 
patrons respectively. If telegraph messages are to be 
surrendered in bulk whenever it may seem to be advan- 
tageous to any political party to demand them, that fact 
should be known, and then persons using the lines can 
govern themselves accordingly. 



^mmmU. 



Mr. Chas. H. Davis, recently of the New York Asso- 
ciated Press wire, at Baltimore, Md., vice Mr. Bishop, 
who has been upon the sick list, upon the return of the 
latter to duty, accepted a position with the Western 
Union Company at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Mr. John Little, late an operator on the lines of the 
Canada Southern Railway, has been appointed a circuit 
manager of the Canada Pacific Telegraph line. His divi- 
sion covers a distance of over 500 miles, extending from 
the head waters of the Assiniboine river to Port Edmon- 
ton, on the north branch of the Saskatchewan river. 



Social Entertainment Given by the Direct Cable 
Staff at Torbay, N. S. 

The cable staff of the Direct United States Telegraph 
Company, at the Torbay, Nova Scotia, station gave a 
social eutertainment at that place on the 10th inst. We 
are under obligation to the gentlemen under whose aus- 
pices this entertainment was given for an invitation to 
participate in the festivities of the occasion, and regret 
our inability to do so. 

The arrangements for the festivities, which comprised 
a ball and supper, were very complete, and great credit 
is due to the members of the staff who had charge of the 
affair. 

The entertainment was a complete success. The lead- 
ing families of the place, who had been invited to partici- 
pate in the hospitality of the gentlemen comprising the 
staff, very generally attended, some of them coming by 
sleighs from distances of twenty to sixty miles. The 
large room in w hich the festivities took place was hand- 
somely decorated with festoons of spruce and fir, the 
British ensign and the company's flags. 

The supper provided was an excellent one. The pros- 
perity and continued independence of the company was 
the subject of the first toast proposed by the leading 
guest, which was appropriately responded to by the 
genial superintendent, Mr. C. W. Lundy. This was fol- 
lowed by other toasts and sentiments, the ladies, of 
course, not being forgotten. 

After a Danish hunting chorus, admirably rendered by 
the staff, dancing was resumed, and kept up with great 
spirit until a late, or perhaps we should say an early hour. 
At the conclusion of the entertainment a cavalcade of 
sleighs conveyed the guests to their homes, who were 
unanimous in their expressions of pleasure at the delight- 
ful evening which had been passed, and in the hope that 
other opportunities for social enjoyment with their hosts 
might be afforded them. 



Back Volumes of The Telegrapher Wanted. 

A gentleman desires to obtain the volumes of The 
Telegrapher, Volumes I to VII, inclusive. Any 
person having these volumes, or either of them, who de- 
sire to dispose of them, is requested to communicate with 
the Publisher, stating condition of the papers, whether 
bound or unbound, and price required. 



Professor Huxley says : " The general notion of an 
Englishman, when he gets rich, is to found an estate and 
benefit his family. The general notion of an American, 
when fortunate, is to do something for the good of the 
people, and from which benefits shall continue to flow. 
The latter is the nobler ambition," 



Congress and the Western Union Officials. 

The account of the telegraph contempt cases is con- 
tinued from where it was brought down to in the last 
week's issue of The Telegrapher. 

In the case of President Orton, the Speaker's warrant 
for his arrest, as ordered by the House of Representatives, 
was issued, and a deputy of the Sergeant-at-Arms duly 
served it upon him, and he arrived in Washington on 
Thursday evening. He was not, however, arraigned at 
the bar of the House until Monday last, the intervening 
time having been utilized in the preparation of his 
answer. 

On Monday the Sergeant-at-Arms appeared at the bar 
of the House with Mr. Orton in custody. The Speaker 
having put the usual question to him, whether he was 
now ready to purge himself of contempt, Mr. Orton filed 
a written answer, which was read by the clerk. 

Mr. Orton pleads in his answer — first, that at the time 
when he was so subpoenaed he was suffering from an 
ailment of such a character, that then and ever since it 
was impossible for him to take a long journey ; and sec- 
ondly, that the telegrams called for had never been in his 
possession or control except as an agent of his company, 
and that the company had, without any knowledge or 
participation on his part, taken from him all power and 
control over telegrams sent through its offices. He dis- 
claims any intentional disrespect to the committee or to 
the House, and declares his readiness to appear before 
that committee on its return to Washington and give his 
testimony fully and freely. He therefore asks to be dis- 
charged from custody. 

The reading of the paper having been concluded, the 
whole matter was, on motion of Mr. Hunton, of Virginia, 
referred to the Judiciary Committee, and Mr. Orton was 
remanded to the custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms. 

In the case of Mr. E. W. Barnes, late manager of the 
New Orleans, La., Western Union office, Mr. Knott, of 
Kentucky, Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, to 
which committee the whole matter had been referred, as 
stated last week, made a report to the House on Monday. 
The report asserted the right of the House to compel the 
production of the messages called for. The report was 
read by Mr. Knott at the clerk's desk, and the reading 
occupied nearly an hour. 

Mr. Barnes was then brought again before the bar of 
the House, and the Speaker demanded whether he was 
willing to produce certain messages mentioned in the 
subpoena of the committee. 
In reply Mr. Barnes said : 

" Wheu I left New Orleans I was necessarily 
superseded, being under heavy bonds and unwilling to 
be responsible for the money and business when not per- 
sonally present; I am, therefore, not at present in con- 
trol of anything or of any messages in the New Orleans 
office ; should I come into possession of the messages 
again, and should there prove to be any such messages 
there as are described in the subpoena, I am willing to 
produce them." 

The Speaker decided that the witness was still in the 
custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms, as the reply was not 
categorical. After some discussion as to whether the 
witness was in custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms or of the 
House, Mr. Barnes made further answer: "I intended 
my answer to be such as the resolution seemed to re- 
quire ; I thought it proper, in candor, to inform the 
House as to my present circumstances; I am entirely 
willing to produce the messages if I can do so." 

After some discussion as to the present status of the 
witness, and his contempt in not producing the messages 
when first served with tho subpoena, at which time it 
was asserted he had them in charge, Mr. Knott offered a 
resolution declaring that the answer of the witness, E. W. 
Barnes, was not sufficient, and that said Barnes was iu 
contempt of tho authority of the House, in refusing to pro- 
duce certain telegrams demanded of him, and remanding 
him to tho custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms till ho shall 
purge himself of this contempt, or until he shall bo dis- 
charged by order of the House. The resolution was 
adopted — yeas, 131 ; nays, 72 — and Mr. Barnes was re- 
manded to tho custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms. 

Mr. Barnes is confined in a room in tho Capitol. How 
ho is to get out is not apparent, as he has not now tho. 



custody of the messages which the House insists upon 
his producing. The final action in his case will probably 
depend upon the disposition made of that of Mr. Orton. 

On Tuesday last, a subpoena was served on the mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company to appear before the Senate Com- 
mittee, of which Senator Morton is Chairman, to investi- 
gate the Oregon Electoral College matter. All of the 
members who were in the city left Wednesday morni g 
for Washington. It is probable that they will also be 
called before the Louisiana Investigating Committee, and 
there is a chance that the difficulty existing may be ar- 
ranged in the couise of a few days. 

A communication from Mr. Barnes was laid before the 
House by the Speaker, stating that the answer he made 
when last before the bar of the House was in good faith. 
He was willing to produce the messages called for if in 
his power, and that he would make every effort to ob- 
tain said messages, and asking that he be permitted to 
make the attempt, promising, if he was unable to do 
so, to again place himself in custody of the Sergeant-at- 
Arms. This was refened to the Judiciary Committee, 
and on Wednesday pei mission was accordingly given Mr. 
Barnes to proceed to New Orleans in the custody of a 
deputy Sergeant-at-Arms, to return in ten days. 

Mr. Orton was afso given permission to proceed to New 
Yoik to consult his physician, to return to Washington 
on Friday. 

The Committee on Privileges and Elections have sub- 
poenaed the members of the Executive Committee of the 
Western Union Telegiaph Company to appear before 
them, and be examined in reference to certain messages 
said to have passed over the lines of the company. 



An Anglo-American Cable Interrupted. 

A notice was posted in the office of the Anglo-Ameri- 
can Telegraph Company in London, on Monday last, 
that the 1866 cable of that company was interrupted on 
the previous Saturday. The location of the fault had 
not been exactly made, but it was believed to be from 
100 to 130 miles from Heart's Content, N. F. The 
Anglo-American Company has still three cables in oper- 
ation, which are amply sufficient for the prompt trans- 
mission of all business offered. 



Equalization of Kates by the Atlantic and Pacific 
Telegraph_Co. 

A further reduction and equalization of rates took 
effect on the Atlantic and Pacific lines on Wednesday, 
17th inst. 

The tariff from Baltimore and Washington to Chicago 
has been reduced from 75 to 50 cents; Cincinnati, from 
60 to 50 cents; St. Louis, $1 to 75c; Milwaukie, $1 to 
75c; Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio, 65 to 50 cents; 
Detroit, Mich., 65 to 50 cents; Davenport, Iowa, $1.50 
to 75c. ; Peoria, 111., $1.25 to 75c. ; Indianopolis, Ind., 75 
to 60 cents; Louisville, Ky. (to be opened soon), $1 to 
60 cents; Cumberland, 40 to 25 cents; Parkersburg, W. 
Va., 75 to 40 cents. 



New Construction of the Atlantic and Pacific. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company is now 
constructing a second wire from Springfield, via Holyoke, 
to Northampton, Mass; a branch line from Holyoke, via 
South Hadley Falls, to South Hadley, Mass. ; also a 
branch line from Northampton, via Hadley, to Amherst, 
Mass. 

The new line from Boston, Mass., to Portland, Maine, 
seems to have been very substantially built. It was 
opened in October last, and it is stated that up to date 
there has not been an hour's interruption to its working, 
which at this season is cortainly a creditable fact. 



Important Reduction of Western Union Tariffs. 

On Monday last the following reductions in tariffs on. 
Western business went into effect on the Western Unioiv 
lines. The tariff from New York to Chicago, 111., Cin- 
cinnati, Cleveland, Columbus and Toledo, Ohio, Detroit, 
Mich., and Wheeling, W. Va., is now fifty cents; Daven- 
port, Iowa, Milwaukee, Wis., Peoria, 111., St. Louis, Mo., 
sevonty-five cents; Indianapolis, Ind., sixty couts ; Now- 
burg, N. Y., twenty-five cents. 



Extension of the Dominion Telegraph Company's 
Lines. 

The Nova Scotia section of tho Dominion Telegraph 
Company's Lines has recently been extended from 1'ictou 
to Halifax, and the company is now prepared to take 
[ocal traffic between the following offices, viz.-: Halifax, 
Dartmouth, Waverly, Shubenocadie, Truro, 1'ictou, Now 
Glasgow, Quysboro', Cape Oanso and Torbay. 

The company makes connection at Torbay with the 
Direct Cable Co. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 20, 18TT. 



The office at Halifax is in Morion's book store, opposite 
Province building. 

Mr. D. B McQuarrie is superintendent of this district 
of the Dominion Company's lines. 



— , 

A New Atlantic Cable Project. 

Mr. Whyte, of Maryland, introduced in the United 
States Senate, on Tuesday last, a bill to promote tele- 
graphic communication between America and Europe. 
It proposes to authorize Ferdinand C. Latrobe, Wm. F. 
Frick and Robert G-arrett, of Maryland, to lay and main- 
tain submarine cables to connect American and European 
coasts, on condition that at least one cable shall be laid 
and operated within three years; that the tariff rates shall 
be as low as one shilling British currency per word, and 
that the cable interests thus established shall not be sold 
or united to, or amalgamated with any existing European 
or other cable companies. The bill also contains pro- 
visions giving the United States Government priority of 
use and otherwise regulating the order in which messages 
shall be transmitted, etc. It was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations. 



New York Western Union Telegraphic Notes. 

We are most happy to record the safe return to our 
midst of our genial co-laborer, Mr. George Warren, who 
has been so ill the last two months that an obituary was 
more in keeping with his state than a congratulation. 
Although just released from the hospital, where he re- 
ceived treatment for that dangerous malady, " Bright's 
disease," George is looking remarkably well for a sick 
man, his cheeks are rosy, his copy is first class, and he is 
generally felicitous all over. We hope it will be long 
ere he is seized with another such attack. 

Great amusement, not to say surprise, is created by the 
appearance of Geo. Cumming in a new "fashionably cut 
sleeveless jacket." He probably wished to make out 
that it is all an ''armless joke. 

The following correspondence explains itself: 
" To Sup't. 

"I should be pleased to favor you with my skill and in- 
genious perspicuity. I work the New York and Wash- 
ington Associated Press wire — the fastest c'kt in the 
Union. Where and when shall I report for duty? 

C. H. D." 
" To C. H. D., N. Y. 

"I shall be only too happy to gain your valuable assist- 
ance. Haste, ohl haste thee to Chattanooga." 

Mr. D.'s many friends will be sorry to hear that ill 
health causes his sudden determination to hie him hence 
to the sunny South. 

The following message was handed one of our chiefs 
the other evening : 

" I am not 1001 Please excuse me to-night." 

The gentleman who wrote it probably meant to indi- 
cate that he was below par, or a little short of parboiled. 
The feelings of the receiving operator, when he finally 
" tumbled to himself," can be much better imagined 
than described. Suffice it to say that his tell-tale coun- 
tenance indicates a temperature of 99° in the shade 
whenever the subject is mentioned. 

Old Growler. There is a Railroad man on this wire 
named A. S. King, who insists on sending a frightful 
number of long messages. 

The Wit. Well, you ought to be able to receive them 
without asking any one to help you. 

If any one don't want to get " bounced out " they 
shouldn't ask Saunders what he knows about throwing 
" high die " at raffles. It takes one to open the door and 
another one to enable him to " walk Spanish." 



Albany (N. ¥.) and Vicinity Telegraphic Notes. 

The following characteristic postal card arrived here a 
few days ago : 

" Truckee, Cal., Jan. 4, 1817. 

Wonders will never cease. The latest, most unex- 
pected and startling thing out I hasten to tell you. Just 
think of it ; here in a land of strangers, twenty miles 
east of Sacramento, at a junction of the C. P. & Oregon 
road, in a vast wilderness, I met Dingman — Dingman I 
Think of it ! Dingman of Canada 1 ! ! Wonderful, eh ? 
Dingman 1 He speaks Spanish, and his long legs and 
knock knees fly around in the same outlandish way as of 
old. All well. Bogy." 

Dingman, Bogy, and the person to whom the postal 
card was addressed, worked together in the Capitol and 
Congress Hall offices of the Western Union and United 
States Telegraph Companies at Albany about fifteen years 
ago. 

Bogy's copy shows no sign of " weakening," and if his 
habits are now equal to his penmanship, we may expect 
to hear of him as a superintendent ere long. 

Mr. James K Parsons, of Syracuse, has been added to 
the A. and P. force in this city. 

Geo. H. Usher, of Clifton Park, N. Y., has replaced 



Mr. Menmuir at the A. and P. Co.'s Capitol office ; the lat- 
ter gentleman now works in the main office. 

The Albany American District Tel. Co., under the judi- 
cious management of manager Sewall, of the A. and P., 
it is expected, will soon declare a dividend. 



Telegraphic and Electrical Brevities. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company has 
transferred its lines between Aurora and North Vernon, 
on the route of the Ohio and Mississippi Railroad Com- 
pany, and that company is erecting poles and suspending 
wires between those two cities. When the connection is 
completed, the A. & P. will operate it as leased property. 

A Harrisburg news despatch says that the Pennsyl- 
vania Legislature will probably repeal the law requiring 
telegraph companies in that State to retain the originals 
of messages three years. 

The construction of a new wire over the Troy and 
Boston Railroad, from Troy to North Adams, was begun 
by the Western Union Company in December, and is ex- 
pected to be completed this month. When it is done the 
old wire will be devoted entirely to railroad business and 
the new one to commercial business. This new wire is 
said to have been very much needed, as it had become 
difficult to accommodate both the railroad and com- 
mercial business on one line. 

The operators of the Pittsburg Division of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Telegraph presented Mr. John Suter, 
who has been for several years chief operator of the divi- 
sion, with a handsome gold watch and chain as a Christ- 
mas compliment. 

A short private telegraph line, known as the Bing- 
hamton, N. Y., Pony Telegraph, has been put up con- 
necting the residences of H. Y. Bresee and F. W. Goul- 
den, Western Union operators, with two or three other 
places in circuits. The line is said to be of first class 
material, and built in a very substantial manner. 

Telegraph poles are being placed for a line from Red 
Cloud Agency to Hat Creek, in the Black Hills, Dakota, 
and the wires will probably be stretched early in the 
spring. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

The Bahia-Rio Janeiro Brazilian cable is interrupted. 

The traffic receipts of the Direct United States Tele- 
graph Company, for the week ended Jauuary 6, were 
£3,050; January 13, £3,560. 

The Falmouth-Lisbon cable has been repaired, and 
communication to Portugal and South America by that 
route restored. 



Speech Transmitted by the Telegraph Wire. 

In an article explanatory of the telephone, which we 
published nearly eight years ago (see our May number 
for 1869, page 129), we expressed the opinion that only 
the pitch of a tone could be transmitted, and not the 
quality of a tone, and that neither could articulate sounds 
conveyed over the telegraph wire. This opinion was 
based on the nature of the telephone there described, 
which transmits vibrations of various velocities, while 
these various velocities correspond with various pitches 
of tone. 

It affords us great pleasure to announce that we were 
mistaken in this opinion, and that the instrument has 
been so much improved and modified that articulate 
speech can be transmitted. We have seen an account of 
a conversation by word of mouth carried on at a distance 
of two miles — from Boston to Cambridge — over a tele- 
graph wire armed at each end with telephones. The bat- 
tery used consisted of ten Bunsen cells. The transmis- 
sion of the sounds was at first weak and indistinct, but, 
by manipulating the contacts, they became quite loud 
and intelligible. Both operators took notes of what they 
said and heard, and we here give an extract of the same. 

Boston said : " What do you think was the matter with 
the instrument ?" 

The Cambridge record contains this sentence, as heard 
plainly and answered : " There was nothing the matter 
with the instrument." 

The Boston record shows that this was heard and un- 
derstood, and after a few other attempts to hear, Boston 
said : " I think we were both speaking at the same 
time." 

Cambridge recorded this thus as hearing : " I think 

at the same time," and then said : " Can you 

understand anything I say ?" 

Boston recorded this question, and answered: " Yes ; 
I understand everything you say." 

After some conversation about the relay to be sent 
out, Boston said: "Try something in an ordinary conver- 
sational voice," on which Cambridge answered: "I am 
now talking in quite a low tone of voice;" and Boston 
replied : The sounds are quite as loud as before, and twice 
as distinct." 

After conversing in this way for more than an hour, 
and taking notes of everything said and heard, Cambridge 
said : " Let us talk conversationally now without noting," 



and this was then done with the utmost freedom for an- 
other half hour. 

The line used was of the Walworth Manufacturing 
Company, running from their office to their factory, while 
the operator in Cambridge was Mr. Thomas A. Watson, 
and in Boston Mr. Alex. G. Bell. 

We take great pleasure in laying an account of such a 
remarkable telegraphic feat before our readers. — The 
Manufacturer and Builder. 



The Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association. 

RECEIPT OF ASSESSMENTS. 

New York, Jan. 11, 1877. 
Assessment No. 88. 
82, 146, 466, 468, 469, 470, 471, 474, 514, 560, 626, 
1699, 2094, 2256, 2288, 2440, 1622. 

Assessment No. 89. 

2558. 
Assessment No. 90. 

4, 5, 8, 16, 25, 52, 53, 56, 64, 65; 74, 77, 86, 88, 
91, 121. 131, 138, 145, 157, 181, 208, 211, 215, 217, 
235, 269, 271, 276, 286, 309, 346, 349, 352. 394, 416, 
420, 426, 434, 467, 509, 510, 526, 549, 553, 594, 703, 
721, 740, 822, 825, 830, 842, 886, 901, 1011, 1039, 
1081, 1088, 1090, 1126, 1144, 1275, 1183, 1276, 1298, 
1300, 1303, 1325, 1345, 1394, 1398, 1409, 1444, 1569, 
1571, 1623, 1672, 1673, 1758, 1816, 1965, 1970, 1995, 
2069, 2082, 2133, 2202, 2228, 2229, 2287, 2322, 2337, 
2343, 2375, 2386, 2400, 2413, 2455, 2482, 2510, 2533, 
2547, 2554, 2555, 2609, 2614, 2645, 2689, 2693, 2699, 
2700, 2717, 2757, 2758, 2776, 2785, 2786, 2788, 2798, 
2799, 2802, 2809, 2810, 2843, 2844, 2845, 2846, 2847, 
2848, 2849, 2850, 2851, 2852. 

Members who look to The Telegrapher for receipt of 
payments, will please take notice that the acknowledg- 
ment of payment of one assessment should be taken as a 
receipt for all previous assessments. 



December 30th. 
I received by mail, post marked New York City, re- 
turned notice of assessment 89 and 90, containing $2. 
No name or number of-certificate given. 

A. H. Watson, Sec'y. 



Quotations of Telegraph Stocks at N. Y. Stock 
Exchange, 

Showing Lowest and Highest Prices each day during week. 

Reported for The Telegrapher by Messrs. Hotchkiss & 

Btjrnham, Commission Stock Brokers, No. 36 Broad street. 



Jany. 



Western 
Union. 



73J4 ... 73M 
7Z% ...74% 
74% ... 75% 
74U ... 76% 
7514 ... 76% 
75M ... 76 



Atl. and 
Pac. 



16M 
17 
17 
17^ 



Ajier. 
Dist. 



Bid. Asked. 



Gold and 
Stock. 



Bid. Askea 



Gold and Stock nothing doing. American District, 18 bid, 
offered at 24. 



Born. 

Crane.— On Saturday, January 13, 1877, Mr. Pierson fi- 
Crane, manager of the Denville office, was presented with a 
fine sounder of the "Crane" pattern; weight about seven 
pounds — first edition. 



Married. 

Thomas— Smith.— On Wednesday, January 17, 1877, in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Mr. Wm. Thomas, agent and operator N. P. R. R. 
Co. at Langhorne, Pa., to Miss C. J. Smith, of Philadelphia. 

We tender them the congratulations of the N. P. manipula- 
tors.— Ex. Prof. 



THE DIRECT UNITED STATES 
CABLE COMPANY (LIMITED). 



Superintendent's Office, ) 

New York, Jan. 16, 1877. J 

The Falmouth-Lisbon cable is repaired ; communication is 
therefore restored to Portugal and South America by the usual 
route. 

The cable to Scilly Islands is interrupted. Telegrams are 
mailed from Penzance. 

' GEO. G. WARD, SupH. 



Jan. 20, 18W.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



in 



TT7ESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
220 KINZIE STREET, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Cash Capital and Surplus, $200,000 00. 



MANUFACTURERS AND JOBBERS 



ELECTRICAL 



TeleppMc Instruments aiA Supplies. 

ANSON STAGER, 

President. 

ENOS M. BARTON, 

Secretary 
ELISHA GRAY, 

. Electrician. 

GEO. H. BLISS, 

General Agent. 



BOSTON AGENCY, 

367 Washington Street. 

PHILADELPHIA AGENCY, 

1302 Chestnut Street. 

CINCINNATI AGENCY, 

166 Race Street. 



THE LECLANCHE 
BATTERY. 

THE WOELD RENOWNED 

Open Circuit Battery 

XO ACIDS ! 

NO SULPHATE OF COPPER ! 

DOES NOT FREEZE ? 

Will last from six months to several 
years Without Renewal. 



IS ESPECIALLY ADAPTED to Electric Bells, Hotel and 
House Annunciators, Burglar Alarms, Medical Apparatus and 
all kinds of Open Circuit Work. Address, 

LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 

No. 40 West 18th Street, or 
L. G. TILLOTSONr& CO., Sole Agents, 

8 Dey Street, New York. 



rpHE TELEGRAPHER. 

A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 
DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 
of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 
Published every Saturday 

AT 

No. 20 CORTLANDT STREET (ROOM 5), 

NEW YORK. 



A. 



G. DAY, 



MANUFACTURER OF 



KERITE INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRE 
AND CABLES. 




THIRTEENTH VOLUME. 

The THIRTEENTH VOLUME of THE TELEGRAPHER 
will commence with the number for JANUARY 6, 1877. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

is notable as the only telegraphic journal in the world which 
has been permanently established and maintained as an entirely 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 

relying exclusively upon the patronage received for its support. 
It is, and has been from the commencement of its publica- 
tion, the recognized representative of the PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHERS, and not conducted in the interest of any 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY, CLIQUE OB 
COMBINA TION. 

As such it has been and will be honestly continued, so long as it 
shall receive the confidence and support of those whose interests 
it maintains, and whose cause it supports and advocates. 

It will enter upon its THIRTEENTH VOLUME with con- 
tinued excellent prospects, and its publisher confidently appeals 
to the TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY of the whole country 
to make it even more BRILLIANTLY SUCCESSFUL than it 
has been heretofore. 

Its columns are at all times open to the freest and fullest dis- 
cussion of all questions of interest and importance to the Fra- 
ternity, or the Telegraphic Art and Electrical Science in con- 
nection therewith. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 
patronage received, will be spared to improve its character and 
add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

FIRST CLASS INDEPENDENT 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 
The popular features of the paper, which have heretofore 
secured to it the favor and approbation of those who are inter- 
ested in Electrical Science and Practical Telegraphy, will be re- 
tained, and new features introduced from time to time which 
will maintain its character and reputation, and render it more 
valuable and desirable to those for whom it is prepared- 
While due attention will continue to be paid to Scientific Elec- 
trical Developments and Practical Improvements in Telegraphy, 
it will be made popular and interesting by Sketches, Tales and 
Original Articles, which will be furnished exclusively for its 
columns by able writers. 

One specialty which renders it valuable is the complete sum- 
mary of information which is given in its columns relative to 
telegraphs, telegraphic progress, and telegraphers throughout 
the world, and which makes each volume a 

FULL AND ACCURATE HISTORY 
of the telegraphs for the year. 



MANUFACTORY, 
SEYMOUR, CONN. 



120 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



T 



HE 



HIGHEST AND ONLY PREMIUM 
AWARDED. 




PARTRICK & CARTER, 
38 South Fourth Street, riiiladeJfphia,\Pa., 

have received the highest and only Premium and Diploma 
awarded at the late Centennial Exhibition, upon their Cham- 
pion Learner's Apparatus, Giant Sounders and all Morse 
Telegraph Instruments. 

These goods are warranted better than the best and cheaper 
than the cheapest. 

Every description of Telegraph and Electrical Instruments 
and supplies constantly on .hand. 

SEND FOR PRICE LISTS, CARDS AND CIRCULARS. 
Agent for California, 

GEO. POMEROY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Terms of Subscription. 

Invariably in Advance. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

" " THREE MONTHS : . FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 
Dominion of Canada. 
Subscriptions may commence at any time. 

Rates of Advertising. 

One Square (twelve Hues Nonpareil), each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

One Column, " " 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will befarwardedfree on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty per Cent. 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for four Sub- 
scribers at the regular price of subscription, $2 per year, will be 
entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
change in their address, must always send their old 
as well as their new address. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reason- 
able rates; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than 
(INK DOLLAR. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
(jiia I'll BR must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503), NEW YORK, 



The Di-electrical properties of Kerite have been tested in 
every conceivable manner during the last few years, and its 
superiority over all other kinds of insulation fully demon- 
strated. 

Its durability has been proved by constant exposure to the 
sun and atmospheric changes of the thousands of miles of 
covered wire in use by the Fire Alarm and Telegraph Com- 
panies in many of the principal cities of the country. It has 
been largely used in the City of New York, under all condi- 
tions and exposures, lor the last nine years, and at the pres- 
ent time its resistance is as great as when first exposed. 

The facts are now fully established that Kerite is not inju 
riously affected by the extremes of heat and cold experienced 
in any climate, nor by length of exposure in the atmosphere. 
It will endure long continued heat below 200° Fahrenheit, 
while for short intervals it may be subjected to 250 or 300° ; 
and it may be safely immersed in boiling water. 

The action of water, salt or fresh, not only protects all its 
qualities, but very much improves its insulation. 
It is also unchanged by being placed in the ground. 
Any corrosive elements in the earth do not act upon it, nor 
is it injured by the roots of plants, which soon destroy gutta 
percha. 

Acids act very slowly upon it, and then only to the extent of 
oxydizing the surface. 

It will bear exposure to hot, strong solutions of alkalies with 
out injury. 

Mineral oils and illuminating gas, so far as known, do not 
produce any serious effect upon it. 
Exposure in a city gas pipe has not injured it. 
Thorough experiments have shown that it does not suffer in- 
jury by the most destructive insects of land or water. 

Samples of the core or insulated conductor of Kerite cables 
have for a long period been laid in the Caribbean Sea, yet the 
" teredo," which would have speedily destroyed other cables 
thus exposed, has left these entirely unharmed. And experi- 
mental lines on the Isthmus have been equally exempt from the 
ravages of the white ant, which destroys wood telegraph poles 
so rapidly that iron poles have been substituted. 

The .same qualities which render it so indestructible by all 
corrosive agents, insure its durability for an indefinite period in 
all climates. 

Neither gutta percha nor vulcanized india rubber will bear 
storage in tropical climates without rapid deterioration, and 
undergoing chemical changes, which destroy their essential 
qualities, while under the same conditions the Kerite insulation 
is not changed in any respect. 

The Kerite covered wire is used almost exclusively by the 
United States Navy Department in the torpedo experiments 
which have been going on during the past three years. Prof. 
Farmer, the Government Instructor, says of it : " It fulfils the 
conditions required in the torpedo service better than any insu 
lator with w T hieh I am acquainted." 

John L. Lay, Esq., the inventor of the famous torpedo bearing 
his name, says that he thoroughly tested the Kerite cable in this 
country and also in Egypt, and finds it preferable to rubber or 
gutta percha, heat not affecting it, and so far as his experience 
goes, it is proof against the " teredo.'' 

Messrs. Gamewell & Co., proprietors of the American Fire 
Alarm and Police Telegraph, have used the Kerite wire for ten 
years. They say : " We have placed it in use in some sixty 
cities, extending from Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the north to 
New Orleans and San Francisco on the south and west, embrac- 
ing every variety of climate, and it has proved itself to be, under 
all circumstances, the most reliable and indestructible insulator 
known tons for telegraphic purposes." 

The experience of other parties using the Kerite coated wire 
overhead, underground and under water, is almost precisely 
similar, and is well summarized in the following opinion of 
George B. Prescott, Esq., the Electrician of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. Mr, Prescott says : "In September, 1809, 
we placed some of your Kerite wire, unprotected by any cover- 
ing whatever, in the tunnel under the river in Chicago, and 
have since continued its use in that exposed situation with the 
most gratifying results. A portion of the funnel is very wet, 
and water, saturated with lime, constantly drips upon the wires, 
while in other portions they are kept alternately wet and dry, 
which is well known to be one of the severest tesls lhat any in- 
sulating material of an organic nature can be subjected to ; and 
yet, after five years' exposure, under the above conditions, the 
Kerite covering shows no signs of decay or deterioration. An 
insulating covering of india rubber or gutta percha under a like 
exposure, would have been destroyed in much less time." 



For further particulars address 



A. G. DAY, 

130 Broadway, New York* 



iv 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[Jan. 20, 18T7. 



A 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 



SAMEWELL & CO., Proprietors, 

63 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

3. W. STOVEE, 

General Agent and Superintendent 
L. B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the Wegt and North- West, 
TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND MANUP'G CO., Cleveland, Ohio, 
Special Agents for the Middle States 
J. R. DOWELL, Richmond, Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina 
J. A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina 
L. M. MONROE, New Canaan, Conn,, 

Special Agent for New England 
ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO, 
San .Francisco, Gal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada, 

THIS SI8IEH OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE, 

OB 

UPOJS THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

is now in operation in the following Cities, to whic?i referenoeis 

made tor evidence cf its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



Albany, N. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn., 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Oharlestown, Mass., 
Chelsea, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dayton, Onio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
FallRiver, Mass., 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Fond du Lac, Wis., 
Harrisburg, Penn., 
Hartford, Ooun., 
Halifax, N. S., 
Hyde Park, 111., 
Indianapolis, Ind., 
Jersey City, N.J. , 
Kalamazoo, Mich., 
Lansiugburg, N. Y., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Manchester, N. H., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee. Wis., 
Minneopolis, Minn., 
New York City, 



New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Nashville, Tenn., 
Newton, Mass., 
Newport, Ky., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, B. I., 
Portland, Oregon. 
Patereon, N. J., 
Pawtucket, R. I., 
Quebec, L. 0., 
Reading, Pa., - 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
3i. Louis, Mo., 
St. John, N. B., 
St. Paul, Minn., ' 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Gal., 
Savannah, Ga., 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Somerville, Miss. , 
Terre Haute, Ind., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
West Roxbury, Mass. 
Washington, D. 0., 
Worcester, Mass. 



The Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

First— The Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constant per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second The Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— Vtte Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 
adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 

belli. 
Fourth The Electro-Mecnanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 

the iiie is instantaneously communicated to the members of 

each fire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PERFECT. COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 
IN THE WORLD. 
It is a sufficient vindication of the claims whtfih are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few instano et in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEWELL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER dk CHANN1N& PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has just been extended for seven years, and 
daring the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 
MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietors have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM, 

the introduction and operation of which involves so little ex- 
pense, compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 
The American System of 

FIRE ALARM AND POLICE TELEGRAPHS 

has met with the universal apprcbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THB 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATE8 and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 
EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 
of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the genera) adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILT BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been Introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, the«3 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing its in~ 

traduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 

their efforts will be d'ily appreciated and 

compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authorities and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



QIEND FOR CATALOGUE. 

LOW PRICES AND 20 PER CENT. DISCOUNT. 

WATTS AND COMPANY, 

BALTIMORE, MD., 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Telegraph and Electrical Material 

AND 

SUPPLIES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

including first class Morse Instruments of all styles and designs. 

Best LINE WIRE in the country. Office and Magnet Wire. 

Insulators of every kind, including our NEW PORCELAIN 
INSULATORS. 

Our beautiful and effective MAIN LINE SOUNDER is still the 
best in use. Price (key on base), $22.50. 

Our POCKET EELAY is the best and cheapest made. Price 
$16.00. 

We keep in Stock a full line of American District material at 
prices that defy competition. Our new 

SELF-STARTING AND STOPPING REGISTER. 

BATTERY MATERIAL of every kind, including our 'cele- 
brated 

BALTIMORE BATTERY, 

Electric Bells, Annunciators for Hotels and Private Houses, 
Burglar Alarms. 

LEARNERS' INSTRUMENTS, 

FOR SCHOOLS, SHORT LINES AND STUDENTS 

No. 1. Outfit complete $8.00 

Key and Sounder 6.75 

Battery, per cell 1.25 

No.2. Outfit complete 6.00 

Key and Sounder 5 00 

Battery, per cell 1.00 

When complete set purchased, Wire and Chemicals and Book 
of Instructions are included. Special quotations for large 
ouantities or schools. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 

just published. Contains useful knowledge for telegraphers 
and those who contemplate purchasing, with a reduced price list 
from which we will, till further notice, allow a discount of 20 
per cent, on instruments when sent C. O. D., or when cash ac- 
companies order. 

THE TELEGRAPHERS' MUTUAL 
BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

Established October 22, 1867. 

ITS OBJECT IS TO AID THE FAMILIES OF 
DECEASED MEMBERS, 

JSr PAYMENT TO THE HEIRS OF $1,000. 

Any person who is, or who has been employed in telegraph 
service in any capacity, may become a member of this Associa- 
tion upon giving proof of good health and habits and payment 
of the required fees. 

INITIATION FEE, $2.00. 

Payments required: One Dollar upon the Death 
of each Member. 

Application blanks, copies of the By-Laws and other informa- 
tion furnished upon application to the Secretary, or any of the 
Agents. 

The attention of former members of the Association is called 
tq the following resolution, passed at the last Annual Meeting 
of the Association : 

Resolved, That delinquent members shall be eligible to renewed 
membership on payment of back dues to an amount not exceed- 
ing five dollars, and without further initiation fee. 

W. HOLMES, Secretary. J. D. REID, Treasurer. 

Box 3175, New York. 

N. B. — Members will please note change in number of Post 
Office Box. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic Views of the Operating Room 
and Switch of the New York Office have been taken and will be 
sold for the benefit of the Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation. 

REDUCED PRICES AS FOLLOWS : 

Operating Room, 10x14 inches $1 25 

8x10 " 75 

Switch, 8x10 75 

Stereoscopic Views. 

Operating Room 35 

Switch 35 

Address orders for any of the above to the Secretary of the 
Association. 



Jan. 21, 18TT.1 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



19 



The Telegrapher 

ft JOURNAL OF 

ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 





N. 








J. 










SATURDAY, 


JANUARY 21, 1871 




VOL. 


. XIII. 


WHOLE No. 


550 



Important Correspondence Relative to the Pro- 
posed Atlantic Cable Combination. 

- The proposed combination or fusion of Atlantic cable 
interests would affect other telegraph interests, especially 
those of connecting land lines, and it is not singular that 
their managers should protest energetically, and bring all 
the influence possible to defeat it. As soon as the new 
scheme to bring about such a fusion of interests was de- 
veloped, and it became evident that there was a possibil- 
ity of its succeeding, the managers of the Atlantic and 
Pacific and the Dominion Telegraph Companies at once 
protested against any such action. 

A pamphlet containing a copy of the correspondence 
between these managers and the officers of the Direct 
United States Cable Company, and between Presi- 
dent Eckert of the Atlantic and Pacific Company and the 
Secretary of State ; also, between Managing Director 
Swinyard and the Canadian Government ; and an opin- 
ion of counsel in regard to the legal results in Canada of 
any agreement between the two companies for amalga- 
mation, for working under a joint purse arrangement, has 
been published. 

On Dec. 12, 1876, Mr. Thos. 1ST. Gibbs, President, and 
Mr. Thos. Swinyard, Managing Director of the Dominion 
Telegraph Company ; and Mr. Thos. T. Eckert, President, 
and Mr. A. B. Chandler, Secretary of the Atlantic and 
Pacific Telegraph Company, addressed an official communi- 
cation to Mr. G. Von Chauvin, Managing Director of the 
Direct United States Cable Company, who was then in 
New York, calling his attention to the reports of a pro- 
posed consolidation of the Atlantic cable interests, and 
protesting strongly against it. They call attention to the 
clause in the Memorandum of Association of his com- 
pany providing that no amalgamation and no arrange- 
ment shall be entered into with then existing Trans- At- 
lantic telegraph companies, upon which the contracts be- 
tween the three companies were entered into. A strong 
protest is made against any such violation of this clause 
on the part of the Direct Company as a gross breach of 
faith ; and in conclusion they say : "And we further beg 
to intimate to you that it is our intention to take such 
necessary legal proceedings as may most effectually pro- 
tect the interests of our respective companies, and as 
under the circumstances we may be advised." 

Mr. Swinyard, as Managing Director of the Dominion 
Company, on the 23d December, 1876, addressed Hon. 
Alex. Mackenzie, M. P., Premier of the Government of 
the Dominion of Canada, a communication in which he 
calls his attention to the proposed combination, and en- 
closes a copy of the protest of the Dominion and Atlantic 
and Pacific Companies. He says, after alluding to the 
importance to the Canadian public generally of the mat- 
ter, irrespective of the interests of the Dominion Tele- 
graph Company: 

"Both of these cable companies are now under the 
jurisdiction of the Government and Parliament of Canada, 
and I would venture most respectfully to submit thai 
Canadian interests should not be allowed to be prejudi- 
cially dealt with in the manner proposed, but that im- 
mediate measures should be taken by the Government to 
protect the public against any such efforts. 

I would also beg to observe that the Direct U. S. 
Cable Company became incorporated under the Marine 
Electric Telegraph Act of Canada, and that it is an express 
condition, not only of that Act, but of the Letters Patent 
conferring such incorporation, that the company should 
be maintained as a separate and independent organiza- 
tion. 

I would further beg to point out, with respect to the 
position of the Anglo- American Telegraph Company, that 
it is only on sufferance that it occupies the shore of Can- 
ada; and that the Government and Parliament of the 
Dominion can exercise their jurisdiction in such manner 
as will preserve the country against the injurious conse- 
sequences of the proposed monopoly, and can make effec- 
tual the policy which the Act intended to establish." 

Subsequently, on the 29th December, Mr. Swinyard 
further submitted to Mr. Mackenzie an opinion given by 
Honorable Adams Crooks, Q. C, on the legal results in 
Canada of any agreement between the two Atlantic cable 
companies for amalgamation, or for a joint purse arrange- 
ment. Mr. Crook's opinion is: 

" I. Anyi union of the two incorporations would in- 



volve : Firstly, the loss by the Direct Company of its in- 
corporation and powers in Canada, which by the Letters 
Patent, issued under the provisions of the Electric Marine 
Telegraph Act, are expressly subject to the provisions of 
that Act. Section 16 expressly prohibits the proposed 
union. 

Secondly. — The consequent liability of the Direct Com- 
pany to an information by the Crown, under which its 
occupation of the Canadian shore, and the exercise of 
any franchise for cable purposes in Canada could be 
enjoined, and, as I think, successfully. 

Thirdly. — The Marine Electric Telegraph Act was 
predicated on the position of the Anglo-American 
Company on the shore of Nova Scotia, being only 
an occupation on sufferance. The Crown could, therefore, 
proceed by information to enjoin this in the future; and 
the legal reasons are strong enough to justify my opinion 
that such proceeding would be successful. The special 
authority conferred by the Act has not taken away or 
limited this general legal right of the Crown. 

II. A joint purse traffic arrangement would involve the 
like consequences. The 16th section of the Act prohibits 
as well the entering into any agreement with any com- 
pany such as the Anglo-American, and the 15th section 
expressly makes any grant of corporate powers "condi- 
tional upon the company doing, observing and performing 
the sever al provisions thereof.' 1 '' 

In reply to these communications, Mr. Mackenzie, Jan. 
10, 1877, writes to Mr. Swinyard, in reference to the 
policy which the Government of Canada will adopt in 
the premises, that it is contained in the Act, Cap. 26, of 
the statutes of 1875, " and that they will resist, by every 
means in their power, a violation of this law." He fur- 
ther says : " The Direct Cable Company will, as a matter 
of course, forfeit any rights which they may hold under 
our Act, should they pursue the course indicated by recent 
movements, the promoters of which cannot be ignorant 
of the policy and determination of the Canadian Govern- 
ment in reference thereto." 

December 26, 1876, President Eckert addressed a com- 
munication to Hon. Hamilton Pish, Secretary of State 
for the United States, in which he informs him of the 
steps which are being taken to reestablish an Atlantic 
telegraph monopoly, and encloses for his information a 
copy of the protest* of the Atlantic and Pacific and Do- 
minion Telegraph Companies, heretofore mentioned. He 
states that he is informed that the permission to the 
Direct Cable Company to land its cables at Rye Beach, 
N. H., was upon the understanding that it enjoyed no 
monopoly or exclusive privileges, and as the proposed 
joint purse arrangement with the Anglo-American Com- 
pany, which possesses several monopoly rights and ex- 
clusive privileges, would be a direct departure from this 
understanding, he asks whether the American interests 
involved by this breach of faith would be protected by 
any action on the part of the government in the sense 
adverted to by the President in his message of the pre- 
vious year, in which the principle was laid down that no 
new cable company, having monopoly rights, would be 
permitted to land in the United States. 

In conclusion, he says : "I have reason to believe that 
if I could forward to England a notification from the Gov- 
ernment to the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company, 
to the effect that this policy wouid be adhered to, it would 
at once put an end to the project of transforming the 
Direct United States Cable Company into a monopoly 
company, and that, thereby, not only would the rights 
and interests of the company I represent be preserved, 
but a great benefit would be conferred on the American 
public," 

To this the Secretary of State replies, under date of 
January 2, 1877, and states that he has laid the commu- 
nication before the President. No express permission 
was given to the Direct United States Cable Company to 
land its cables, but on the assurance that the articles of 
Association precluded any mouopoly features, or amalga- 
mation with any other company, or any arrangement 
which would tend to an advance of rates, or otherwise 
interfere with a wholesome competition in the interests 
of the public, the President decided to withhold resist- 
ance to the landing of their cables. He further says : 

" The President adheres to the views which he ex- 
pressed to Congress in December, 1875, that no line 
should be allowed to land on the shores of the United 
States which is not, by prohibition in its charter or other- 
wise, to the satisfaction of the Government, prohibited 
from consolidating or amalgamating with any other cable 
telegraph line, or combining therewith for the purpose of 
regulating and maintaining the cost of telegraphing. 

These views are understood to have met with the ap- 
proval of Congress and of the people of the United States, 
indicated by the acquiescence of the Congress, and by the 
expressed approval of individual members of that body, 
and the general approval of the public press of the coun- 
try. In the same message the President announced that 
the right to control the conditions for the laying of a 
cable within the jurisdictional waters of the United States, 
to connect our shores with those of any foreign State, 
pertains exclusively to the Government of the United 
States, under such limitations and conditions as Con- 



gress may impose. And he further stated that, unless 
Congress otherwise directed, he would feel it his duty to 
prevent the landing of any cable which does not conform 
(among others) to the point above referred to. 

The President is of the opinion that the control of 
the United States over its jurisdictional waters extends 
to the right of discontinuing and preventing their use, by 
a cable whose proprietors may violate any of the condi- 
tions on which the Government has, by quiescence or 
silent permission, allowed its landing, as well as to the 
resistance and prohibition of an original landing. 

He reserves any decision as to the particular case 
which you present as within possible contemplation, until 
such time as an occurrence shall have taken place which 
mav call for the action of the Government." 



Biographical Sketches.. 

I. — JIMMY LANTEPNJAW. 

By Gnimmuo. 

"We intend, under this caption, to publish iu detail as 
full a history of all the prominent telegraphers in the 
Union as possible, the series to run through say about 
1,000,000 years of our issue, so that the operator of the 
future can look back with pride on the former estate and 
say with the poet — 

"Deliver me from my friends." 

The subject of this article was born in the Wilds of 
Jersey. At a very early age he was instructed in the 
rudiments of electrical sounds by having his ears saluted 
with the revibrational pulsations of an old fashioned 
clock, which stood in one corner of the room. Another 
sort of tick was inculcated into the covering with which 
his downy pillow was surrounded. 

His peculiar growth of hair was superinduced by con- 
dign nature, and by the parental injunction — 

" Early to bed and early to rise, 
Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise." 

Thus it will be seen that he was but an epitome of the 
King of Day, whose rays, falling upon his noble brow, 
refracted its own identity upon them. 

At six he was instructed how to hang up at a corner 
grocery for dad's toddy ; thus, still another sort of tick 
was given his perceptions, which had its own moral effect, 
and when, at the tender age of ten, he accepted a posi- 
tion as first class plug, through the intercession of a 
neighboring factory, his perspicacious emanation was un- 
equalled throughout the whole photosphere. 

Not to extend this too long, it may be said in brief, 
Mr. L. swings a nasty quill, and is B. U. — bang up — in 
every respect. 

Tick-ets ! ! ! 

Being first comer, and the "noblest in the land," he 
was not charged anything for this notice. All future 
puffs of this kind, however, will be extended indefinitely 
at one dollar a line, with an additional expense for the 
engraving of $100. Terms, invariably cash in advance ! 
. You tick-le me — I'll tickle you. 



The Beauty of Automatic Machinery. 

By Rox. 

K Y. (after receiving a long message from an up town 
office, whose right call is withheld for prudential reasons). 
Is " De Baron " one or two words? 

Gz. We count it two. 

N. Y. Then there's 65 words. 

Gfz. No, only 64. (Begins to letter it.) A. y. i., etc. 

K. Y (Finding it O. K. letters it back.) A. y. i. m. g., 
etc. (Then getting no break.) Have you counted this 
message ? 

Gz. (apparently much astonished at receiving such an 
inquiry). No 1 ! 

N. Y. (rather sharply). "Why not? 

Gz. (very much unconcerned). Because it is not my 
business. 

N. Y. (waxing indignant). How so? 

Gz. (with curtness and impudence). Our clerk says it 
has 65 words ; that's all I know about it. 

K Y. (with determination settled on his features). 
All right. . .. 

N. Y. operator then shows message to chief with full 
explanation as above. 

Manager (overhearing conversation). Who is this 
nobleman ? 

Chief. The Count de Gee Zed. 

Manager. He's no 'count or he would hot act so. 

After about five minutes more of " persuasion " from 
chief the "Count de No Account" condescends to give 
the right check. 

Tho same artist is an actor in another brilliant trans- 
action. The Saturday evening before Christmas, N. Y. 
called up a small branch office on tho same wire — whom 



20 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 21, 18??. 



message addressed 

"No. 3. John Jones ans. to X. office," and received 
an " 0. K." and s ; gnal letter in due and ancient form. 

At six o'clock numbers were exchanged, and " Gn." 
given to X., all right. 

About midnight Gz. ofs. sent the following office mes- 
sage: 

"To Clark: Can't find your No. 3 to John Jones; 
not known. "What message is it an answer to ? 

Gz." 
Now, as numbers to Gz. were something near 100, and 
the two offices three miles apart, he certainly might have 
" tumbled to it " without waiting six hours to find Mr. 
Jones. 

The other smart man at "X." offered on Tuesday the 
following as his excuse : 

" You called mo and I answered you, but as I heard 
some one break and give 0. K., I said nothing, and tore 
my copy up." 

How he explains about numbers being 0. K. at six 
o'clock is the mystery. 



we may call X. for convenience sake — and sent him a dered the fortunes of my ancestors, who turn uneasily in 

their graves when thev think of the painful prodigality of 
their offspring, but who sink to rest again as peacefully 
as an infant around whom the god Morpheus, wooed by 
its mother's evening hymn, has wrapped the mantle of 
oblivion, when they consider the noble work in which 
their patrimony has been expended, and they are con- 
scious that the blood of eleven generations of Irish 
giants — that they transmitted to the veins of their 
progeny — is being spilled in a good cause ; for a better 
cause than the compilation of a "book of calls" could 
not be imagined. "While, as I said before, I am some- 
what chagrined to think that you have preceded me to a 
certain extent, I am willing to lay aside all feelings of 
rivalry and give you the bulk of material that I have 
gathered, and the benefit of my experience and travel. 
I have travelled and worked all through Asia, Asia 
Minor, Africa, on the Continent, England, Ireland, Scot- 
land. Wales, Australia, New Zealand and the Canary 
Islands, the United States, New Jersey, and a portion of 
Cook Co., Illinois, and have bad some thousands of calls 
impressed on my mind. As you only want telegraphic 



Here's a verbatim report sent to the Superintendent calls, I will not mention the ministerial calls, sick calls, 



last summer, from a branch office : 

"You op'r (giving name) at N. Y. is too much in the 
habit of placing his exotic words in immediate proximity." 

Another " 'uth," upon being shown a message which 
had been bulled in transmission (he being the presump- 
tjous sender), made a long explanation involving the un- 
fortunate receiver in a mazy network of invectives, in 
which "plug," "miserable excuse," and other pet names 
held a prominent position — the "diagnosis" further 
stating the number of times the " thing you call a man " 
had broken him on the said misquoted word, and how 
careful had been the attempt to get things through in 
good shape. 

After this very positive explanation, it was rather an 
astonisher to the said youth to find out he had not after 
all sent the message, or had anything to do with it in the 
least. 

Such is Chinese cheap labor. 



A New Telegraphic Literary Enterprise. 

The noble ambition to engage in literary enterprises in 
connection with telegraphic interests has been greatly 
stimulated of late. The success which has attended the 
publication of Shaffner's -Manual, Prescott's History, 
Theory and Practice, Pope's Modern Practice, Haskins' 
Galvanometer and its Uses, Oakum Pickings, etc., has 
shown that the telegraphers of this country and the 
world are not disposed to suffer literary aspirations to 
seek in vain for practical and pecuniary recognition. 

A practical railroad telegraphic artist, has, in view of 
the demand for telegraphic literature, originated a new 
work, which will fill a gap that has existed from the 
time that the electric telegraph became an established 
institution, and which, now that its importance has been 
called to the attention of the fraternity, it will be a mat- 
ter of surprise has not hitherto been filled. 

The following correspondence will give an insight into 
the plan and scope of this great work. The name of the 
author is withheld, as perhaps his work has not pro- 
ceeded far enough to make it desirable that he should 
as yet become famous. There will undoubtedly be a 
large demand for the work, which will supply the frater- 
nity with most interesting and instructive reading, and to 
which they will devote their leisure time early and late 
until its contents are thoroughly mastered. To the tele- 
graphic student it will be invaluable, and those who are 
incapable of appreciating it should at once turn their at- 
tention to some less mentally exacting business than the 
telegraph: 

" C. B. & Q. R. R. Co., I 

M Station, Jan. 14, 1811. J 

Opr. U. P. R. R-, Omaha, Kans. 

Sir : Will you please be kind enough to send me the 
calls for ofs on the U. P. as far west as you can. I am 
getting up a list of calls, and wld be greatly obliged to 
u for wt ever u send me. 

Respfly yours, 

Telegraph Ofs. C. B. <fc Q." 
" Resp'y referred to Chf. Opr. Hilliker. 

L. H. KORTr." 
" Resp'fy ref'd to L. M. Rheem for further information. 
My list enclosed. Pis. return after compliance. 

A. B. Hilliker, C. M." 
" Omaha, Jan'y 11, '11. 

To , C. B. & Q. R. R., M , Ills. 

Respected Sir: Your letter of the 14th inst. has been 
referred to ipe by A. B. Hilliker, Esq., chief opr. of the 
branch lines and supt. of calls. I have carefully con- 
sidered the subject matter, and am free to say that I am 
in a measure chagrined to learn that you have preceded 
me in a work that has been the dream of my life for years 
— that has been the one object at which I have directed 
the energies of my youth — to attain which I have squan- 



new year's calls, quick calls, long calls, calls for help, 
and calls on four aces that I have made, but will give you 
the calls of some of the principal cities of the world ; and, 
in the event of your book being completed before the 
French Exposition, I want it to appear there. I attach 
the list. 

I have the honor, sir, to subscribe myself, with feelings 
of the most profound respect and admiration, 
Yours in the cause, 

L. M. Rheem, 
Formerly Inspector General of Telegraphs and Ad- 
viser Eleclriqve to his Mjaesty Henry XVII of 
the United Kingdom of Bavaria, Dahomey, 
Tartary, etc., by the grace of Mahommed King." 

CALLS. 
Rome, Italy, " Eo." 
St. Petersburg, Russia, " Pbg." 
Pulldownyourvestovitchsky, Poland, " Py." 
Paris, France, " Fe." 
Christiana, Norway, " Ca." 
Divinity Gap, Henry Co., Iowa, " D." 
Penang, China, " Ch." 
Seminole, Fla., " Hy." 
Havana, Cuba (no call). 
London, England, " De." 
Edinburgh, Scotland, "SD." 
Wipeauphurchinowski, Greece, " Ky." 
Three Queens, Scotland, " 4 Jacks." 
Sevenup, Cala., " Sp." 
Ludington Ranche, Wyo., "W." 
Aintyounevergoingtotumble, Fla., " A." 
Manchester, N. H., "Ma." 
York, England, "Yi." 
Three Forks, Cook Co., 111., " Tt." 
Berlin, Prussia, "Bn." 
Nogosakilavewahtkd, Africa, "N." 
Adams Bluff, Persia, " Ax." 
Dhonbxtghp, Bohemia, " Do." 

Garden of Eden (summer office), business in winter 
by special messenger from Landing No. 18, 
River Euphrates, " Ge." 
Xdvenpd, Dahomey, " X." 
Youngwomantown, Pa., " Yo." 
I will keep on sending them as fast as I can get them. 
Mr. Hilliker will in the meantime give all the U. P. and 
regular R. R. calls. 

I sine T. Wt dew u sine ? . T. 



nifieent silver pitcher, salver and goblets, as a slight tes- 
timonial of esteem of the operators under his charge. Mr. 
Fairchild's spepch was full of wit and humor. He con- 
cluded by hoping that in the -future the recipient would 
not have occasion to present the boys with large yellow 
envelopes, accompanied by, How is if? 

Mr. Cummings seemed too full for utterance, and after 
much effort responded in a few feeling remarks. He 
thanked the donors for the unexpected manifestation — 
honing that in the future, as in the past, the same good 
feelings would prevail. That, while he had labored to do 
his duty to his employers, he had endeavored to treat his 
subordinates with fairness and impartiality. That all 
had been called upon to perform very heavy work in the 
last year, which had been done cheerfully and well, and 
he was pleased to sav that the officials of the company 
had recognized the fact, and all had been highly compli- 
mented. 

The presents were handsomely engraved as follows: 
Pitcher — "Christmas, 1876 ;" Salver — "Presented to Mr. 
and Mrs. W. W. Cummings by the operators of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, St. Louis, Mo." 

After the conclusion of the above, Mr. Ceorge W. 
Huddleston ascended the rostrum, and calling Mr. John 
H. Topliff, night chief, from those assembled, proceeded 
to came him with a handsome gold mounted cane, as a 
token of esteem from the operators. It is elegantly 
carved, and bears the inscription, "J. H T., 1816." 

'Mr. Topliff, with his usual happy smiles, responded in 
a few pleasant remarks, closing by wishing all a "Merry 
Christmas" and "Happy New Year." 

Previous to "New Year's" day all telegraphers were 
notified that Mrs. Col. R. C. Clowry, wife of the Assistant 
General Superintendent of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company, would keep open house, and extended an invi- 
tation to all employes to call. A great many availed 
themselves of the kind and courteous invitation, and were 
cordially received and handsomely entertained. This has 
been customary for several years. Each " caller " had the 
pleasure of leaving his autograph in a book provided for 
that purpose. 

Such manifestations have great and good influence, and 
not only establishes and strengthens a lasting good feel- 
ing between employer and employe, but makes the latter 
feel, though " out of sight are not out of mind " of the 
former. , C. 



©flmwacletta. 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Presentations to St. Louis Western Union Chief 

Operators. — Courtesies to Western Union 

Employes. 

St. Louis, Mo., January 8. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

One of the most happy affairs of the holiday season 
took place in the general office of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company in this city on Christmas morning, 
the occasion being a presentation to the worthy day and 
night chief operators in that office. At ten o'clock, Mr. 
Sidney B. Fairchild made his appearance in the operating 
room, where nearly all of the day and night force had 
assembled, and immediately took a position on a chair in 
front of the chiefs' desk, at which Mr. W. W. Cummings 
was seated. He called that gentleman's attention, and, 
in behalf of the operators, presented him with a mag- 



Postal Telegraphy.— Injunctions and Grass- 
hoppers. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 16. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

I notice that the fanatics in the lobby of our national 
capital are again agitating the postal telegraph question. 
The saints preserve us ! Just as we are about recover- 
ing from the fearful shock they gave us a couple of years 
ago, they renew the charge. If can't be possible they 
have fairly considered the evil thereof. Cheap tele- 
graphy! nonsense! Isn't the W. U. still in existence? 
and have they not reduced rates lower!?) than any com- 
peting line? What more could a lover of liberty wish ? 

The fanatics, in their zeal to relieve the people of a 
burden, have seemed to overlook the fact that we, as a 
ppople, are not beggars. Surely the Congressmen cannot 
wish to see the telegraph a Government institution be- 
cause of no franking privileges. I presume the fanatics 
would claim the high toned offices if they succeeded in 
getting cheap telegraphy. What fine superintendents 
they would make — men that wouldn't know a monkey 
wrench from an adjustment screw, or might think they 
were one and the same. Possibly that money order busi- 
ness out in Oregon had a tendency to rouse up their 
anxiety. As a postal concern, the Postmaster-General 
could scrutinize all such little items. Postal telegraphy 
would give the party in power fearful odds against little 
fishes that would like to succeed to the chair. Why 
lawyers and judges should cry out against this matter, 
espeeiallv the Ohio and Indiana " fellers." Only think, 
postal telegraph — no injunctions. No injunctions, no Ohio 
and Indiana lawyers and judges. Surely the fanatics 
would not subject the above named States to such an 
affliction. They would have to become operators, and 
then hear them : " The aforesaid office couldn't use his 
monkey wrench, and the plaintiff couldn't make the de- 
fendant understand that he must address the jury." 
What a fine thing it would be to see some stern judge 
as manager or chief operator, and hear him pass a sen- 
tence on some victim. No, the fanatics have not studied 
this question very closely. Let them retire, and the A. 
and P. will accomplish what fanatics cannot. 

What grit the W. U. have, though. Even while the 
sword of the House hung suspended over the neck of Mr. 
Orton, a judge in Indiana issued an order, to be served on 
the construction corps of the A. and P. in that State, ask- 
ing them to appear before him and show cause why they 
shouldn't be punished for contempt. What a cruel order 
In the year of "77, while the United States has twi 
presidents, and several States forty-eleven governors 
that a judge should issue such an order ! Of course i 



Jan. 2T, 1817.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



21 



was obeyed, and of course they could show cause ; but 
that's nothing to do with it. A judge was fighting cheap 
telegraphy, for fear they would have to become telegraph- 
ers, when the brother fanatics in Washington should ren- 
der injunctions a thing of the past. 

I should feel completely discouraged had that corps 
been imprisoned. Speaker Eandall feeds his victims on 
soup and apple pie, while Indiana feeds her victims on 
divorce documents and shoe leather — not physically ap- 
plied. I predict that something terrible will happen that 
State — a famine, perhaps. 

Imagine a grasshopper twining his legs around a spear 
of grass in Ohio, and sticking his nose over in Indiana 
looking for something to eat. Then see some judge come 
tearing along with a divorce case in one hand and a shoe 
store in the other, and " Injunction " stamped on his fore- 
head. In mercy's name, what grasshopper could stand 
that? Our friend Grasshopper would turn away in dis- 
gust, and so do I. P. 



The Chicago and Pacific Railroad Telegraph and 

Telegraphers. — Appreciation of 

"The Telegrapher." 

Along the Line of the 

Chicago and Pacific Railroad, 

January 12. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

"We still live, move and have a being, draw our small 
salary, and are happy and contented, even if we do 
have to wait three months for our pay, sometimes. But 
we are all plugs — at least that's what the Chicago W. 
U. boys tell us. There are no plugs there, of course ; 
but then some of them do have an awful time when we 
send them specials, and get these old plug fingers ol 
ours limbered up. "Stix." "'don't come," "write Morse," 
" change," etc. — that's the kind of stuff they give us. 
Then they switch three or four times in a twenty-five 
word special. I should think they were all chiefs, to 
hear them talk. Of course there are exceptions, but 
they are like the boy that was fond of fat meat — very 
scarce. 

There have been no wonderful changes here recently. 
Mr. F. Cunningham, who is acting as agent for this road 
for your welcome paper, is still chief operator, and as 
genial, good-hearted a gentlemen as you ever saw. No 
fighting circuit on this line ; he won't have it ; and, 
although some of the boys who have been to Chicago and 
seen him, say he's so little you could stick him in your 
Ulster overcoat pocket (if you have one ; I have one 
— to get), still we mind him just as though he was as 
big and fat as — as, well, yourself, for instance. 

Mr. Williams still runs things, to the satisfaction of all 
concerned, at Rjselle, 111. Mr. Rae, at Pingaree Grove 
P. 0., seems to be the right man in the right place; Mr. 
Romney is the gentleman who keeps things straight at 
Wallace P. 0. ; Mr. Y. P. Smith is employed in Chicago 
City, and seems to be a very nice, gentlemanly fellow. 

The Telegrapher is well patronized on this road. 
The boys know it's their friend, and the only paper pub- 
lished entirely in the interest of the fraternity. A num- 
ber who do not take the paper now will do so as soon as 
they get paid off again or can effect a loan. Although 
times are hard, they feel they cannot afford to be without 
the paper, when it only costs about fifteen cents a month. 
Three glasses of beer less, or three segars less (we can only 
afford five centers), furnishes the wherewith to buy it. 

Pacific. 



Telegraphs and Telegraphers in Milwaukee. — A 
Popular Superintendent, etc. 

Milwaukee, Wis., Jan. 13. 
To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

It is not often you hear from this suburb of Chicago 
(as the daily Chicago papers are wont to call our thriving 
city of beer and pretzels). The fact of the matter is, so 
little occurs here that there is little to attempt to write up 
a communication from. Very few telegraphers resign ; 
none die ; and everybody slays right where they are, and 
do just as they have been doing for years. 

We occasionally see the genial countenance of that 
kindly gentleman, so friendly to telegraphers generally, 
and especially to those under his charge, Dr.^C. H. Haskius. 
I understand his duplex is doing good service at several 
points on the Northwestern lines. It speaks pretty 
well for a superintendent like the doctor when men are 
offered better and more remunerative positions to work 
for another company, and that also with the doctor's con- 
sent, and refuse, on the ground that they are so well 
pleased with the treatment where they are that they do 
not want to change tor a superfluity of red tape. 

The Telegrapher is taken, read and paid for here 
more extensively than any other telegraph journal or any 
other class journal, in fact, published. This is because 
the fraternity here want telegraph news, not trashy little 
telegraph stories. 



The A. & P. continue to make friends with the public 
by reducing rates — but, seriously, ain't they running the 
thing into the ground ? They are ably represented by 
Mr. Farnham. 

The Board of Trade Telegraph Company seem to be 
getting their share of the business. Mr. C. L. Portier is 
the active manager of that company here. 

Mr. Weller still attends to the W. U. interests, as he 
has done for years ; Mr. Shape holding the reins as chief 
of the W. U. side, and Mr. Kelsey keeps things straight 
for the Northwestern folks. 

" Mf " don't seem to be posted in stock biz. ; he never 
heard of " free sellers," but he often tells us about 
"freezlers." I suppose it's a kind of a crab that grows in 
his native swamps, and their history is so closely con- 
nected with his that he cannot forget them. It can't be 
possible that he makes bulls. 0. 



New Patents. 

P^"" Official Copies of any U. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications, and claims in full, 
sent free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, 
Elizabeth, iV. J. 

For the week ended Dec. 12, 1876, and bearing that date. 

185,288.— Galvanic Batteries. — Chas. P. Bush, Cleveland, 
Ohio, assignor of one half his right to the Telegraph Supply 
Company, same place. [Piled August 28, 1876.] 

1. A galvanic battery in which oxychloride of lead is used as 
a depolarizing or hydrogen absorbing agent, substantially as 
and lor the purpose described. 

2. In a galvanic battery the combination of the lead element 
B, or its equivalent, with oxychloride of lead, substantially as 
and for the purpose described. 

3. In a galvanic battery, the lead element B, or its equivalent, 
and oxychloride of lead, in combination with the zinc element 
D, and a solution of chloride of sodium or its equivalent, sub- 
stantially as and for the purpose described. 

For the week ended December 19, 1876, and bearing that date. 

185,430. — Lightning Rods. — John J. Cole, St. Louis, Mo. 
[Piled March 23, 1876.] 

1. The rod herein described, having a flat face a, grooved as 
at a\ and a series of longitudinal ribs upon the reverse face, the 
central ribs of the series projecting beyond the side ribs, sub- 
stantially as specified. 

2. A lightning rod having the flat face a, grooved as at a\ and 
the reverse ribbed face, substantially as and for the purpose 
specified. 

3. In combination with the sections of rod A, having grooves 
a\ the longitudinally ribbed splice plate, substantially as and 
for the purpose specified. 

4. In combination with two or more sections of rod A, having 
grooves a\ the longitudinally and transversely ribbed splice 
plate, substantially as and for the purpose specified. 

5. In combination with two sections of rod A, having grooves 
a\ the longitudinally ribbed splice plate and staple rivet, sub- 
stantially as and for the purpose specified. 

6. In combination with two or more sections of rod A, having 
grooves «', the longitudinally and transversely ribbed splice 
plate, and the cap or sheath, substantially as and for the pur- 
pose specified. 

7. The combination of the upright or point rod and the brace 
rods G G, connected directly to the point rod, substantially as 
and for the purpose specified. 

8. The combination of the upright or point rod, the brace 
rods connected thereto, and the switch, substantially as and for 
the purpose specified. 

y. A lightning point provided with a central wire of platinum 
throughout its length, substantially as and for the purpose 
specified. 

10. In combination with a lightning rod, a terminal or ground 
point, properly tipped and protected with platinum or other 
suitable metal, substantially as and for the purpose specified. 

11. A lightning rod point provided with a platinum tip cast 
therein, as and lor the purpose set forth. 

185,445.— District Telegraph Boxes.— G. S. Ladd and S. D. 
Pield, San Francisco, Cal. [Filed July 25, 1876.] 
Turning a pointer to the particular want sets a " dash plate', 
at a certain position with relation to the " dots " of the signal. 
Signal then transmitted, in the ordinary manner, by turning a 
crank to wind up the driving spring. 

1. In a telegraph signal box, provided with a dial B, for indi- 
cating the various services to be signaled, the index hand or 
pointer D, with its sleeve y and pinion z placed loosely upon 
the centre post C, said pinion engaging with a setting device, 
which is retained in the set position by a ratchet wheel d, and 
pawl b, and which is returned to its original position by a spring 
c\ when the transmission of the signal is completed, substan- 
tially as and for the purpose described. 

2. The combination of an automatic and mechanical writing 
wheel q, provided with teeth, which indicate the number of the 
station, and with a series of regularly spaced teeth, at least cor- 
responding in number with the number of services indicated on 
the dial, and an adjustable dash plate X, with. a train of gears 
for setting said wheel in motion, and a spring platinum point r, 
and electric wire s, substantially as and for the purposes de- 
scribed. 

3. The combination, with a series of circuit closing teeth, of 
a circuit closing plate, adjustable with relation to the teeth of 
the series, so as to cuange at pleasure the succession of dots 
and dashes in an electric signal. 

185,507.— Electro-Harmonic Multiplex Telegraphs.— T. A. 
Edison, Menlo Park, N. J., assignor to Western Union 
Telegraph Company. [Filed August 31, 1876.] 
Circuit is rapidly thrown through each instrument seriatim, 
in corresponding sets of transmitters and receivers at the re- 
spective stations, so that a transmitter and receiver arc simul- 
taneously and momentarily connected to line, the remainder 
being then disconnected, and another set connected through 
the agency of a beries of isochronously vibrating reeds. 

1. The method, substantially as herein described, of subdivid- 
ing a single telegraphic circuit into two or more independent 
signaling circuits by means of vibrating tuning forks or reeds. 

2. The method, substantially as herein described, of subdivid- 
ing a single telegraphic circuit into two or more independent 
signaling circuits by means of vibrating tuning forks or reeds 
kept in continuous vibration by electro-magnetism. 

8. The method, substantially as herein described, of subdivid- 



ing a single telegraphic circuit into four or more independent 
signaling circuits by means of a primary or fundamental fork or 
reed, and one or more auxiliary forks or reeds, which latter are 
in respect to the number of their vibrations submultiples of the 
primary fork or reed. 

4. The method, substantially as herein described, of subdivid- 
ing a single telegraphic circuit into a number of separate sig- 
naling circuits by means of one or more sets of electro-magnetic 
tuning forks or reeds, each set being composed of one or more 
forks or reeds, when these are controlled and made to vibrate 
isochronously by means of a controlling electro-magnetic tuning 
fork or reed, placed in another and indepeudent circuit. 

5. The method, substantially as herein described, of connect- 
ing a telegraph Hue to earth immediately after it is detached 
from one set of signaling instruments, and of disconnecting it 
from the same before it is placed in connection with another set 
of instruments. 

6. A telegraphic circuit, subdivided at each station into an 
equal number of independent branches, in combination with 
two or more isochronous tuning forks or reeds, when the latter 
are so arranged as to place the mam line alternately or succes- 
sively in simultaneous connection with each pair of branches, 
substantially as set forth. 

7. A telegraphic circuit, subdivided at each station into an 
equal number of independent branches, in combination with 
two or more isochronous tuning forks or reeds, and two or more 
sets of electro-magnets for keeping the said forks or reeds in 
continuous vibration, when the latter are so arranged as to place 
the main line alternately or successively in simultaijeous con- 
nection with each pair ol branches, substantially as set forth. 

8. A telegraphic circuit, subdivided at each station into four 
or more branches or signaling circuits, in combination with a 
primary tuning fork or reed, kept in continuous vibration by 
the action of the electro-magnets, and one or more similarly 
actuated auxiliary forks or reeds, which, in respect to the 
number of their vibrations are submultiples of the primary fork 
or reed, substantially as set forth. 

9. A telegraphic circuit, subdivided at each station into two 
or more branches or signaling circuits, by means of vibrating 
tuning forks or reeds, in combination with another and inde* 
pendent circuit, in which are placed other electro-magnetic 
tuning forks or reeds, so arranged as to control and render iso- 
chronous the vibrations of the tuning forks or reeds at the diff- 
erent stations upon the first named circuit. 

10. The vibrating tuning fork or reed K, in combination with 
the contact springs 13 15, contact points c and d, and contact 
screws 14 16, when so arranged that the line will be momentaiily 
connected directly to the earth, while the fork is passing its 
centre of oscillation in either direction, substantially as set 
forth. 

11. The combination of the transfer reeds and their signaling 
instruments, local circuit and batteries with the main line reed 
or reeds, substantially as and for the purpose set forth. 

12. The tuning forks or reeds A and L, with their contact 
springs, contact points and main battery, in combination with 
the signaling apparatus R and S, substantially as described and 
for the purposes set forth. 

13. The combination, in one and the same local circuit, of 
several sets of transfer forks at each of the different stations, 
substantially as and for the purposes set forth. 

185,588. — Quadruplex Telegraphs. — G. Smith, Astoria, 
assignor of one half his right to G. B. Prescott, .New York, 
N. Y. [Filed December 27, 1875.] 

1. Two keys or transmitters and one or more main batteries 
at one station, in combination with a line wire, and with one or 
more receiving instruments at another station, when so arranged 
that a current of one polarity will traverse the line when both 
keys are depressed, and a current of equal strength, but of 
opposite polarity, when both keys are elevated, substantially as 
and for the purpose specified. 

2. Two keys or transmitters and one or more main batteries 
at one station, in combination with a line wire, and with one or 
more receiving instruments at another station, when so arranged 
that a current of a given strength and polarity will traverse the 
line when both keys are at rest, which current will be dimin- 
ished or interrupted by the depression of one key, while it will 
be increased, and its polarity reversed by the depression of the 
other key, substantially as aud for the purpose specified. 

3. A receiving instrument or sounder and a local battery, in 
combination with a relay, consisting of one or more electro- 
magnets, provided with an armature or armatures capable of 
being moved from one extreme position to the other by a change 
in polarity in the line current, and a supplementary contact 
lever, so arranged in reference to said armature that the receiv- 
ing instrument will be actuated when the armature is at rest in 
an intermediate position, but not when at rest in either of its 
extreme positions, substantially as herein specified. 

185,589.— Multiplex Telegraphs.— Gerritt Smith, Astoria, 
assignor of one half his right to G. B. Prescott, New York, 
N. Y. [Filed December 7, 1875.] 

1. In a duplex or multiple telegraph, two transmitters con- 
nected with the same line wire, one having a device so con- 
structed and arranged as to close one branch of the circuit 
before opening another, and the other provided with two sepa- 
rate and simultaneously acting devices of like construction and 
arrangement, in combination with two independent batteries, 
so that one battery may be made to send to line either a positive 
or a negative current of one determinate and invariable polarity, 
without in any case interrupting the main circuit, substantially 
as and for the purpose specified. 

2. The oscillating double circuit changer E F G, in combina- 
tion with an electro magnet, local battery aud key, substantially 
as specified. 

3. A compound differential relay, consisting of a permanently 
polarized armature, so arranged as to be impelled iu one direc- 
tion or the other, according to the polarity of the magnetizing 
current, by the attraction and repulsion of two or more separate 
electro -magnets, and provided with differential helices, simul- 
taneously brought into action by the said current, substantially 
as herein specilied, 

4. A receiving instrument or sounder and a local battery, in 
combination with a relay, consisting of one or more electro- 
magnets, provided with an armature or armatures, capable of 
being moved from one extreme position to the other by a change 
of polarity in the lino current, and one supplementary contact 
lever, so arranged in reference to the said armature that the 
receiving instrument will be actuated when the armature is at 
rest in either of its extreme positions, but not when at rest in 
an intermediate position, substantially as specified. 

5. A receiving instrument having a differential electro-magnet, 
the opposing coils of which are included in separate local cir- 
cuits, or in separate branches of a common local circuit, in com- 
bination with a relay so arranged that when its polarized arma- 
ture is moved in one direction by the action of a positive current 
transveising the main line, it will open one, and when moved 
in the opposite direction by a negative current, it will open the 
other of the two opposing local circuits, and in either case the 
receiving instrument will be actuated. 



22 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 27, 18TT. 



The Telegrapher 

PBYOTED TO THE JNTEF^SSTS 
OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1877. 

THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EYEBY SATUBDAT 

At 20 COETLANDT STEEET, Eoom 5. 



THIETEENTH VOLUME. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

ONE COPT, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

" THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES . FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 
Dominion of Canada. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 

RATES OF ADVERTISING. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil) each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " «' 4 00 

One Column, " *■ 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will he forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty per Cent 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any persons sending the names and money for four Sub- 
scribers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per 
year, will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
ohange in their address, must always send their old as 
well as their new address. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at the risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Communications must be addressed to 



p. O. Box 5603.) 



J. ft. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

20 CORTLANDT ST., New York. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISING PAGES. 

page. 

American Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph .~. ....... . iv. 

Ashley, J.N :•■»•■-, n, m, vi. 

Bishop Gutta Percha Works u. 

Bliss, George H. &Co... .}■ 

Brooks, David H- 

Buell, M. A., & Sons i. 

Chester, Charles T .Ti. 

Day, A. G *H- 

Electric R. R- Signal Company u. 

Lannert & Decuer il 

Moore, Joseph* Sons.....: i. 

Merchants' Manufacturing and Construction Co vi. 

Norris, James L v|. 

Partrick & Carter in. 

Phillips, Eugene F .1. 

Protection Life Insurance Co ij. 

Russell Brothers • • • • • i. 

Shiras, J. O. & Co ..}. 

The Leclanche Battery Company in. 

Tillotson, L. G. & Co v. 

Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association . . v. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Co i, iii, v, vi. 

Wallace & Sons i. 

Watts & Co Y- 

Williams, Charles. Jr i. 



The Telegrapher mat be had at the news stand in 
the Receiving Office of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, corner of Broadway and Dey street, where it is 
regularly on sale. 



Popular Errors. — Advice to the Telegraphic 
Fraternity. 

Counsel and advice, even when asked for, is frequent- 
ly unwelcome and distasteful, if not in accordance 
with the previous prejudices and wishes of those to whom 
it is given. The truth is generally wholesome, but none 
the less disagreeable, yet it is frequently a duty to make 
it known notwithstanding. 

It will not, we think, be doubted that The Tele- 
grapher is and always has been the real friend of the 
telegraphic fraternity, and its influence has always been 
intended to be exercised in their behalf and to advance 



their real interests. We consider then that we have the 
right to counsel them for their good, and to endeavor to 
correct what may seem to be erroneous ideas and impres- 
sions. We are always pleased to give space to those 
who may think us wrong, to express and explain the 
contrary view. 

It has seemed to us, from as careful a consideration as 
we could make, that many of the fraternity are laboring 
under some delusions which it would be well for them if 
they could be dispelled. One of these is that telegraph 
officials are constantly seeking to depress the rate of 
compensation to the utmost. It is evident that such is 
not the case, for otherwise compensation for telegraphers' 
services would be even lower than at present. It is con- 
ceded that there is a superabundance of telegraphic Jabor 
seeking employment, and while the better class of opera- 
tors would no doubt find employment at something near 
present prices, to fill the more important and responsible 
positions, yet the lower and less important positions 
would be speedily filled, even if the present occupants 
should of their own volition resign them. We did not 
deem the sliding scale applied to the salaries of the 
Western Union employes last year as judicious, and now 
believe that the desired result might have been other- 
wise obtained, but the later developments showed that 
there was more reason for it than was generally known 
at the time; the company having a floating debt; to meet, 
which it required a suspension of one quarterly dividend 
to pay, and the reduction of future dividends 25 per 
cent., in order to keep in good financial condition. Thus, 
as it turned out, the stockholders of the company had to 
submit to a reduction for the year of 373^ per cent., and 
probably a permanent reduction of 25 per cent., notwith- 
standing the reduction of salaries of employes. It is 
in telegraphing as in every other department of labor and 
business, the supply and demand, and the financial re- 
sults regulate the price of labor, and any combination, 
either to depress or advance prices, can have no perma- 
nent success. 

Another delusion quite prevalent among telegraphers 
is that their condition now is much worse than it was in 
years past. In individual cases this may be true, but 
as a whole it is not true. In the early years of tele- 
graphy the best salaries paid for operators' services 
would hardly be accepted now as adequate compensation, 
for a first class plug. Managers of important offices 
thought themselves fortunate if they received $800 to 
$1,000 per year. Previous to 1860 the manager of the 
largest office in New York received but $1,200, and dis- 
trict superintendents $1,500 to $1,800. Operators who 
received $40 to $60 per month were considered well 
paid. It is true a less rigid discipline was enforced, but 
we hardly think this, although sometimes more agreeable 
was really advantageous to the employes. To offset it 
they were obliged to work early and late, and there was 
but little to be expected in the way of " extra " for such 
continued labor. It is true that- the cost of living has 
advanced since then, and therefore a return to the old 
time salaries would now be impossible, but we do not 
think that the judicious expenditure of the salaries paid 
previous to 1860 would as comfortably support the same 
number of people as the present rate of compensation. 
There are, undoubtedly, individual cases of hardship, but 
these are inseparable from any system governing a large 
body of employes. 

We do not desire to be understood as arguing that the 
present system is perfect, or that it affords the best 
method of assigning telegraph positions and salaries. We 
have frequently pointed out the improvements which we 
think could and should be introduced in this respect. 
The business does not, as at present arranged, afford 
sufficient inducement to those who desire to devote their 
lives to it, or sufficient encouragement in the way of pro- 
motion and increase of compensation to those who seek 
to become really masters of their business. This can only 
be effected by a grading of positions and salaries, and a 
recognized system of promotion, which will hold out to the 
faithful, industrious and able a certainty that eventually 
they shall reap their reward. 



We hope that the time may come, and that at no dis- 
tant day, when telegraph managers and employes will re- 
cognize the advantage and value of the course that we have 
so persistently urged upon them, and that they will be 
found working together for the advancement of their 
mutual interests. It certainly will not hasten this time 
to encourage a spirit of resentment and denunciation on 
the one side, or of distrust and repression on the other. 



Congress and the Western Union Officials.— 
Their Surrender. 

As we anticipated, the summons served upon the 
members of the Executive Committee of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, their enforced attendance at 
Washington t upon the committees of the House and 
Senate, and the probability that they would be declared 
in contempt and placed in confinement, has resulted in the 
compliance with the demand for the surrender of the 
originals of the political messages called for. That this 
would be the final result we have had no doubt from the . 
first ; but, having carried the matter so far, it seems to us 
that it would have been better to have held out a little 
ionger, unless they were satisfied that the position they 
had taken in the matter was wrong and untenable. It is 
true that the condition of their original resolution 
to withhold the messages, as stated in the letter of 
the President to the House Louisiana Investigating Com- 
mittee, " atjeast until after Congress had approved the 
subpoenas of the committees and directed that their de- 
mands be enforced," had been fulfilled, and further resist- 
ance was likely to result in a disagreeable restraint of 
the personal liberty of the members of the committee. 

It, of course, requires a good deal of courage and reso- 
lution to maintain a position uf opposition to the great 
power possessed by Congress in the matter of enforcing 
compliance with its d'emands. The managers of the 
Western Union Company have made a good fight for the 
rights of their customers up to a certain point, but we 
fear not sufficient to insure a remedy for the evils com- 
plained of for the future. If the Executive Committee 
contemplated a surrender at this point, why would it not 
have been quite as effective to have protested against the 
right of Congress to cast a drag net into the telegraph 
offices, fishing for evidence which should implicate cer- 
tain parties supposed to possibly exist, and upon the 
repetition of the 6 demand, surrender the messages under 
that protest ? It certainly appears to us that this would 
have been quite as effective and much less inconvenient 
than the course actually pursued. 

It may now be regarded as settled, we think, that no 
message filed with any telegraph company, so long as the 
original is in existence, is exempt from seizure and pub- 
lication at any time when it may suit the majority of 
either House of Congress to so order. Under these cir- 
cumstances it is not to be expected that in the future 
political messages, which may be construed as inculpating 
either the sender or receiver, will be transmitted by tele- 
graph. Ciphers will be in demand, and these will be 
made so as to effectually conceal the real meaning of 
messages except to those who possess the key thereto. 

It would be well if, by legislation, the rights, duties and 
obligations of the patrons of telegraphs, the managers, 
and of Congress in regard to the originals of messages 
sent or received, could be defined, so that all parties 
might be definitely informed in regard thereof. Such 
legislation cannot be expected at this session, but might 
perhaps be obtained from the next Congress, if the tele- 
graph managers and the public should move energetically 
to secure it. 



The Electric Pen and Duplicating Press. 

The electric pen and duplicating press is one of the 
minor applications of electric-motor power, whose use- 
fulness is at once so apparent as to insure its general 
introduction and approval. By means of this invention, 
practically a stencil plate is produced at about as rapid 
speed as ordinary writing can be accomplished, A steel 



Jan. 2T, 18TC.] 



"THE TELEGRAPHER 



23 



pointer is caused by electric action to work very rapidly 
in a sheath provided for it, with which writing and draw- 
ing may be made upon a sheet of paper over which it is 
passed, in the same manner as in the ordinary process. 
This pierces the paper with a multitude of minute holes, 
outlining whatever is desired to be transferred. This 
makes a practical stencil plate. With each pen a dupli- 
cating press is furnished, on which the prepared sheet is 
laid, and copies can be rapidly made. 

A large number of these have been already sold in this 
country, and it is being introduced in foreign countries. 

Mr. George H. Bliss has been made general manager 
of the business, and has established an office for their sale 
at No. 20 New Church street, in this city. Mr. E. T. 
Gilliland has been appointed General Eastern Agent, 
and may be found as above, where the apparatus uvill be 
exhibited, and any information in regard to them fur- 
nished. 

Mr. D. H. Loudeeback, at No. 1202 Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia, will also act as agent for these pens, and 
will have them on sale. Mr. W. F. "Wheeler has been 
appointed general "Western agent, with headquarters at 
142 La Salle street, Chicago. 

The demand for this apparatus steadily increases as its 
value becomes known, and arrangements are being per- 
fected for its introduction. 

Mr. Bliss is desirous of securing responsible and ener- 
getic agents throughout the country, and telegraphers and 
others desirous of becoming agents are requested to com- 
municate with him at 220 Kinzie street, Chicago. 



Eastern Agency of the Western Electric M'f'g Co. 

The Western Electric Manufacturing Company have 
decided to continue- the office at 1202 Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia, originally opened in connection with tbeir 
extensive exhibit at the Centennial, as their principal 
Eastern agency. Mr. D. EL. Louderback, who is exten- 
sively known in connection with telegraphic enterprises, 
has taken charge of the Eastern department of their busi- 
ness, and will have his headquarters as above. 

The enterprise and energy with which the Western 
Electric is conducted, backed by ample capital, and the 
most extensive and complete facilities for the manufac- 
ture of every description of electrical and telegraphic ap- 
paratus and supplies, has made it a notable success. Its 
business is constantly increasing, and it has already be- 
come the largest concern engaged in the business in this 
country. 

Under Mr. Louderback's capable and energetic man- 
agement there is no doubt but that the Eastern agency 
will be brilliantly successful, and the business immedi- 
ately and largely increased. 

Orders sent to Mr. Louderback will be promptly filled, 
upon as favorable terms as though sent to the manufac- 
tory at Chicago. 



Volumes of "The Telegrapher" for Sale. 

A gentleman has Volumes IX, X, XI and XII of 
The Telegrapher, which he wishes to dispose of. They 
are bound so as to make three books, and will be sold at 
a reasonable price. Any person desiring to obtain these 
volumes will please address the publisher of The Tele- 
grapher. 



The Receiver of the Mississippi Central R. R. has ap- 
pointed Mr. George M. Dugan Sup't of Telegraph for 
the road. 

Mr. Lucius Sheldon, late of Chattanooga, Tenn., has 
accepted a position on the night Ibrce of the New Or- 
leans, La., Western Union office. 

Mr. Walter Dennett, formerly of the Southern and 
Atlantic office at New Orleans, La., is taking report for 
the Western Union at Shrevoport, La. 

Mr. Frank Farley has accepted a situation with tho 
Western Union Co. at the Grand Southern Hotel, Gal- 
veston, Texas. 

Mr. Charles A. Tinker, General Superintendent of 
the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company, was in this 
city this week on business of his division. 



By Cable. 

OPPOSITION TO ATLANTIC CABLE AMALGAMATION. 

London, January 20. — Information received here from 
Germany shows that the proposed fusion of interests of 
the cable companies meets with decided opposition, 
especially from the merchants of Bremen. 



Congress and the Western Union Officials.— The 

Messages to he Surrendered. 

The conflict between the House of Representatives 
and the officials and employes of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, as to the surrender of the originals 
of political messages passing over the wires of the com- 
pany during and subsequent to the presidential election, 
is ended. The subpoena to the members of the Execu- 
tive Committee, and the prospect of their being declared 
in contempt of the House, brought the matter to a focus. 

On Friday, the 18th inst., Mr. Hunter reported to the 
House from the Judiciary Committee a resolution dis- 
charging William Ortou, President of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, from the custody of the Sergeant-at- 
Arms. The report accompanying the resolution declares 
that ■ at the time of his subpoena William Orton was in 
too ill health to proceed to Louisiana, and further, that 
he has not had in his possession the telegrams demanded 
of him. The resolution was adopted. 

On the same day Mr. Lowery, counsel for the Western 
Union officials, read to the Senate and House Investi- 
gating Committees a paper stating the determination to 
which the Executive Committee had come, to surrender 
the originals of messages demanded, and the reasons 
therelor. 

It says that, while the company believes that it is in 
honor and in law bound to resist by all lawful means the 
exposure of the business and other communications of its 
customers, and it seeming to them that subpoenas of the 
general and sweeping character stated above, based on 
no proof that the lew specific messages named have ever 
existed, aud involving laborious and expensive searches 
through many tons of accumulated messages, to the inter- 
ruption aud detriment of the current telegraphic service 
of the country, were oppressive and unjust, it did, by the 
letter of its President to the Hon. Wm. R. Morrison, 
dated December 15, decline to obey such subpoenas, "at 
least until after Congress shall have approved the sub- 
poenas of the committees and directed that their demands 
be enforced." 

The document then recites that Congress did affirm the 
right of the committee to demand the telegrams, in view 
of which fact the following resolutions were passed by 
the Executive Committee of the company : 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this committee it is not 
right or proper, nor has this company the power longer 
to postpone compliance with said subpoenas, however 
difficult or onerous such compliance may be; and the 
President is hereby requested to inform the respective 
committees of the House and Senate above named, and 
also the Judiciary Committee of the House, that search 
will be made for all the messages called for as above 
stated, and if such be found, they will, as soon as the 
same can be gathered and selected from the files of the 
company in the various " towns, cities, and Slates 
named," and from time to time as that is done, " be deliv- 
ered in obedience to said subpoenas." 

Resolved, That, in view of the premises, it is the desire 
of the company, "as far as it is in their power to do so," 
in good faith to comply with the subpoenas of the respec- 
tive committees oi both houses according to their terms, 
and as both houses have by their subpoenas called for 
the delivery of many of the same messages to each, 
therelore, be it further resolved, that in case of failure on 
the part of the committees of both houses to agree as to 
the mode of complying with the conflicting requirements 
of each, it is the opinion of this committee that the mes- 
sages called for by the several subpoenas should be deliv- 
ered in the order in which said subpoenas respectively 
were served upon any person having at the time any 
actual or constructive control of the messages called lor, 
either personally or as one of this Executive Committee, 
or as any officer of the company, and that if required by 
either of the committees whose subpoena is last in order, 
certified copies will be furnished, as far as practicable to 
do so, in place of the originals, which have been first 
demanded by any other committee. 

This was accepted as satisfactory, and the officials who 
were under arrest were discharged from custody. 

Under the direction of the Executive Committeo search 
is being made for the messages called for, to be delivered 
over, as indicated in the second resolution above cited. 



Most persons have an idea that tho Atlautic telegraph 
cable is a ponderous affair, while, in fact, its circumfer- 
ence is that of a five-cent piece. 



A Lively Contest tor Possession of a Telegraph 
Line. 

A company called the Merchants' National Telegraph 
Company some years ago constructed a telegraph line 
from Pittsburg into the oil regions of Pennsylvania. 
This line was leased to the now practically detunct 
Pacific and Atlantic Telegraph Company, and when its 
lines and uanchises were absorbed by the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, the lease of the Merchants' fine was 
included. The Western Union Company is the owner of 
a considerable portion of the stock or the Merchants' 
National, but not, it is understood, of sufficient to con- 
trol it. 

This lease is to expire within a few weeks, and the 
Atlantic and Pacific Company, desiring to get possession 
of the line, has obtained by purchase a controlling in- 
terest in the stock. 

It is stated that a large force was employed by the 
Western Union Company, aud on last Saturday were sent 
out to cut down the poles and remove the wires, as is 
claimed by the Atlantic and Pacific people, for the pur- 
pose of destroying the line, rather than it should fall into 
the hands of its competitor. On the other hand, the 
Western Union officials assert that the line was a " tum- 
ble down " affair, and that the intention was to recon- 
struct it, and make it conform to the other lines of the 
company. However that may be, the Atlantic and 
Pacific officials got wind of what was going on and em- 
ployed counsel in Pittsburg, and had an injunction issued 
by Judge Evving in Cliambers, six o'clock P. M., Satur- 
day, and served the same on all the officers of the West- 
ern Union Company that could be found, and telegraphed 
to all points in the oil regions. Speciai messengers were 
also sent out by train, and started from different points 
on the road, and proceeded with horses in search of the 
men employed in the work of destruction. Sections of 
the hue had, however, been cut down before the men 
could be found, including all between Oil City and 
Franklin. 



The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company Sur- 
render Political Messages. 

Last Tuesday Gen. Eckert, the President of the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Telegraph Company, appeared before the 
Cummittee on Powers, Duties and Privileges of the House 
of Representative in counting the electoral vote, and 
agreed to surrender certain messages sent over the 
hues of the company during the campaign, which had 
been demanded. 



Congress and the Telegraph. 

The petitions to Congress for the establishment of a 
Government telegraph system continue to be sent in 
from time to time, and are referred to the Post-office 
Committee. The subject has been by the Post-office 
Committee of the House referred to a sub committee, 
which, as a preliminary step in the matter, have called 
upon the Postmaster General for his views. There is 
no possibility of any definite action at the present ses- 
sion. 



Reduction L and Equalization of Tariffs. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company have 
issued a sheet equalizing the tariffs between the princi- 
pal stations upon its hues. This shows the rates charged 
between these stations at the beginning of last year and 
Uie rates now charged. The rates have been reduced 
within this time, as appears from this exhibit, from 20 to 
50 per cent, between these stations. 



Montreal Telegraph Company. 

The net profits of the Montreal Telegraph Company 
for 1876 were $151,563. The gross receipts were 
$41,000, aud the expenses $16,000 less than in 1875. 
Dividends amounting to 7% per cent, on the capital 
stock were paid. The contingent fund of the company 
now amounts to $210,422. 

Sir Hugh Allan has been reelected President. 



Violation of an Injunction. 

The Atlantic aud Pacific Telegraph Co., in December last, 
were enjoined from building a line along the Ohio and 
Mississippi Railroad, upon the complaint of tho Western 
Union Telegraph Company. Subsequently tho Atlautic 
and Pacilic Company arranged with the Receivers of the 
railroad to bund tho line for them, transferring their 
material and men to tho Receivers for that purpose. On 
Tuesday last Judges Druuimoud and Gorham, of tho 
United States Court, Indianapolis, iud., decided such ac« 
tiou to be a violation of tho spirit of tho injunction, and 
declared the parties in contempt, administering a severe 
reprimand and discharging them upon payment of costs, 



24 



THE TELEGMAPHfiR. 



[Jan. 27, 1817. 



New York Western Union Notes. 

The Phelps printers are working duplex every day 
on the Washington circuit, doing great and unexampled 
execution. Warren and Cumming are the chief poets, 
Kennedy and Blanchard, the greatest wits on the night 
force since Davis left. 

Dearest Charlie, thou hast left us, 

And thy loss we deeply feel ; 
But 'tis P. who hast bereft us, 

He will all our sorrows heal. 

Steel — he of the coat-room — has been prosecuting a 
war, a fierce, unremitting, cruel war on the enemies of 
his household, the vermani disgustibus. Traps, snares 
and pitfalls have been laid ad libitum, and it is even ru- 
mored that he keeps a deadly weapon — a base, ignoble 
weapon — within immediate and easy reach, should the 
worst come to the worst, lor his own self-defence. 

Three and a hall' minutes is the average time on city 
business now repeated by New York office and exchanged 
between the several branches about town and Brooklyn. 
Mr. Brennan evidently believes in vim and rapidity. 

Johnny Young is, in all probability, the most indus- 
trious man in the office. 

Only two tables remain entirely unoccupied out of the 
original number (86). In a year or two a gallery will 
have to be erected to accommodate the increased busi- 
ness. The first year of the new building the operating- 
room looked like a barn — not so much because of its un- 
finished state as through emptiness — but now there seems 
very little space left for any further prospective instru- 
ments, and every part thereof throbs with electrical life 
and telegraphic vitality. 

Mr. Byrns, the inventor of the patent double back 
action duplexation, as applied to manipulation, has made 
a new discovery in a law which simplifies tenfold the 
old rule for calculating electrical resistance per ohmerical 
mensuration. A work explanatory of the subject will 
shortly be forthcoming. 

Mr. Morrison is at present applying himself to per- 
petual motion. 



The boys would do well to give him a call when they 
want to get some of the weed that's good. 

Miss Ada Patrick, at the Star Union line office, has 
won hosts of friends by the manner in which she does 
the telegraph business of that office. Always pleasant 
and ready to do a favor, it is not to be wondered at that 
she is the pet of the whole office. 

Mr. A. L. Kissenger, of the Metropolitan Company, is 
at present out of a situation. Readers of The Tele- 
grapher, knowing of an opening, will confer a favor by 
notifying him of the location, etc. 

Mr. R. B. Pearson, superintendent of the American 
District Telegraph Co. here, reports business as very 
good with them, considering the hard times. 

Mr. P. M. Crittenton, or "Frank," as lie is familiarly 
called, watches that way business in the W. U. main 
office as closely as a hawk watches a chicken it has 
marked for its prey, and it's very seldom a message gets 
a chance to rest a minute or two on the sending hook if 
the wire is 0. K. 

Mr. E. R. Puffer continues to give satisfaction to all 
concerned in his administration as the "wire puller," 
chief operator, etc., of the C. B. & Q. R. R., at their 
general office here. 

Mr. A. J. Long still persists in living on South Dear- 
born street among the brokers and bankers, even if he is 
only a common night operator iu the W. U. main office. 

Mr. Henry John is one of the " rushers " at the Board 
of Trade Company's office who always takes The Tele- 
grapher. "Warby" Cooper dispenses the lightning 
and helps sell the tickets in the B. & 0. Railroad General 
Ticket Office on South Clark street, just as he has done 
lor years, and he's just as handsome as ever. 

Mr. Nohe, of the W. TJ. main office night force, has 
just returned Irom a trip to St. Louis, "just as happy as 
a clam at high tide." Guess he must have sold that 
Texas land this time. 

Sam Wallace, formerly of the W. TJ. here, is putting 
up fire alarm telegraph lines in Marshall town, Iowa. 



Chicago (111.) Telegraphic Notes. 

Mr. J. J. Powers still flourishes on the plethoric 
pocketbook he fills from the A. & P. Co.'s coffers. 

Mr. R. S. Gough looks after the interests of the W. TJ. 
Co. at the Union Stock Yards, 111. Low rates and good 
opposition managers at that point don't seem to bother 
him or affect his business in the least. 

Mr. M. L. Lawson makes things lively on the Clinton 
and Cedar Rapids wire in the W. U. main office 
(days). Mr. L. is quite a draughtsman, and is becoming 
quite proficient in that line, as the number of duplex and 
quad, instruments he has recently made drawings of will 
attest, notable among which are those he drew lor the 
American Electrical Society, which are soon to be framed 
as ornaments, useful and picturesque, for the purpose' of 
adorning the walls in the society's room. Mr. Lawson 
will take orders for drawing such things, as he devotes 
his leisure to that business ; and if any of the readers of 
The Telegrapher are in want of such drawings they 
would do well to patronize him. 

Mr. J. L. Mansfield has taken the position in the Sher- 
man House Western Union office here, made vacant by 
the resignation of his brother, J. P., who has gone to 
Colorado for his health. The office is now — as it was 
under J. P.'s management — admirably conducted, alike 
to the satisfaction of the public and the company. 

Our old friend. " Curt." Meserve, has settled down in 
Chicago for good. Married? Of course he is. That 
occurred long ago. The Board of Trade Telegraph Co. is 
the only one that suits him now, he is such an old rusher. 
Mr. E. C. Edson, formerly operator for the M. S. R. R. 
at their 64 South Clark street office here, was, upon the 
death of his father, promoted to his position — that of 
agent and operator for the same road at Sylvama, Ohio. 

Mr. Gardner, of the Illinois Central R. R. general 
freight office, after trying his hand awhile speculating on 
the Board of Trade, has again resumed his old position of 
operator and shorthand bill clerk at his old post. 

Mr. Whitehead, of the same company, rushes off way 
bills at a surprising rate of speed iu that little office out 
in the general freight depot. 

Mr. 0. S. Denise, formerly of the Commercial Hotel, 
W. U. office, is travelling for a wholesale firm of this 
city. 

Mr. Chas. Lee is as full of business as ever at his old 
post at the C. B. & Q. general baggage room at the Cen- 
tral depot, but he has always time to give you a friendly 
greeting. 

Mr. E. Weber, an old Eastern telegrapher, who has 
been acting as clerk and operator at the Barnes House 
here, now that the House has closed temporarily for re- 
pairs, still remains as operator for the Metropolitan Com- 
pany there. 

Mr. M. Adams is the gentlemanly operator for the A. 
& P. Company at the Tremont House. He also keeps 
on hand a good assortment of segars, tobacco, pipes, etc. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

At a meeting of the shareholders of the West India 
and Panama Telegraph Company, held in London, De- 
cember 29th, for the purpose of confirming a resolution 
of a previous meeting, giving the directors power to 
carry out their plans of reconstruction, the shareholders 
gave their unanimous support to the board. 

The Manchester (England) Evening News says that the 
electric bell system has been carried out on a larger and 
more elaborate scale at the Manchester City Hall than 
in any building in which that apparatus has been adopt- 
ed. Wire of more than ten miles in length has been ex- 
tended throughout the Hall, all the departments being 
embraced by the system, while, however, each depart- 
ment has its own independent system. 

A valuahle German work, entitled, " Hundbuch der 
Eltktrischen Telegraphies by Prof. Zetzsche, of the Poly- 
technical School in Dresden, is now in course of publica- 
tion. Two parts have appeared (one of each of the two 
volumes). One of them is entirely historical; the other 
is devoted to the subjects of electrical state, sources of 
electricity, stationary electric current, electro-motive 
force, resistance, and heating effects of the electric cur- 
rent. — The Telegraphic Journal. 



Quotations of Telegraph Stocks at N. Y. Stock 
Exchange, 

Showing Lowest and Highest Prices each day during week. 

Reported for The Telegrapher by Messrs. Hotchkiss & 

Burnham, Commission Stock Brokers, No. 36 Broad street. 



Jany. 


Western 
Union. 


Atl. and 
Pac. 


Amer. 
Dist. 


Gold and 
Stock. 


18 
19 
20 
22 
23 
24 


753^ ... 75% 
75M ... 76i/ 3 
76Ya ... 1&A 
76J4 ... 78 
76% ... 77% 
77% ... 77% 


16^ ... 17M 

16/ 2 ... 17 
16i4 ... 17 
16^ ... 17 

VS/% • • ■ 17 
16J6 . . . 16% 


Bid. Asked. 


Bid. Asked 



Married. 

Smith— Ltnd. — At St. Patrick's Church, New Orleans, 
January 4, 1877, by the Rev. Father Kennedy, Charles H. 
Smith, of the Western Union Telegraph Company, same 
city, to Miss Amire, daughter of Robert S. Lynd, Esq., of 
New Orleans. No cards. 

"Smithy" has the best wishes of a numerous circle of 
friends. May his voyage through life be full of sunshine, 
and his pathway strewn with flowers. 



Died. 

Armstrong. — At New Orleans, La., of consumption, in the 
twenty-seventh year of his age, George W. Armstrong, of 
the Western Union Telegraph Company. 



Obituary. 

GEORGE W. ARMSTRONG. 

Mr. George W. Armstrong, the well known telegraph 
operator, died in New Orleans, at two o'clock A. M. Sunday, 
14th Jan<fery, in the twenty-seventh year of his age. He had 
been a sufferer from consumption for the past two years, and 
came to New Orleans last October, in hopes that the mild 
winter would benefit his health ; hut since his arrival he 
had grown rapidly worse, the climate of New Orleans, 
although mild, being particularly unfavorable to consumptives, 
owing to the extreme dampness of the atmosphere. He re- 
mained at his desk until one week before his death, when 
he was compelled, from sheer exhaustion, to take his bed, 
from which he never arose. During his illness he had every 
attention that kind hearts and willing hands could suggest, 
but all efforts to relieve his sufferings were futile, and he 
sunk rapidly until his death. He was conscious to the last, 
put was unable, from exhaustion, to make himself under- 
stood for an hour before he died. 

Although a comparative stranger to most of the fraternity 
here, except by reputation, he had the hearty sympathy of 
all, as it was plain, when he first came amongst us, that his 
life could not be very protracted. 

The funeral took place from No. 165 St. Charles street, at four 
P. M. Sunday 14th, and was very largely attended by the frater- 
nity, and the gentlemen and ladies of the residence wherein he 
died. The funeral rites were performed by the Rev. Dr. Mark- 
ham, of the First Presbyterian Church, Magazine street, after 
which the remains were conveyed to Washington street Ceme- 
tery No. 2, and placed in a vault. 

George Armstrong was widely known in telegraphic cir- 
cles, having worked in many of the large cities of the country, 
and established a reputation as one of the most expert operators 
in the service. Many excellent qualities of mind and heart 
secured for him many friends wherever he went. His death 
will cause much sorrow among the fraternity throughout the 
country, and particularly in Cincinnati, where he spent the 
greater portion of his telegraphic life, and was very highly 
esteemed. In the death of George Armstrong the fraternity 
loses a genial warmhearted gentleman, and a kind and true 
friend, and telegraphy one of its most brilliant exponents. The 
parents of the deceased were telegraphed for, at Columbus, Ohio, 
but failed to reach New Orleans before his demise. They have 
the heartfelt sympathy of everybody in their sore bereavement. 

M. 



Gold and Stock nothing doing. American District, 18 bid, 
offered at 24. 



Born. 

Neilson.— At Toronto, Canada, January 21, 1876, to Mr. Hugh 
Neilson, Superintendent of the Dominion Telegraph Company, 
a son. 

Lockwood.— On Monday, January 22, 1877, at Elizabeth, N. J., 
to T. D. Lockwood, Inspector Gold and Stock Telegraph Com- 
pany, a son. 



T 



BE DIRECT UNITED STATES 

GABLE COMPANY (LIMITED). 



Superintendent's Office, ) 

New York, Jan. 24, 1877. ) 

Indo-European.— The Indo-European line is interrupted. 
GEO. G. WARD, Sup't. 



iLECTRIC 



PEN AND 
PRESS. 



DUPLICATING 




SIMPLE IN OPERATION, 

PERFECT IN WORK, 
i VNRIVAIIED IN SPEED. 

FROM 1,000 TO 7,000 COPIES CAN BE MADE BY THIS 
PROCESS FROM A SINGLE WRITTEN STENCIL. 

It is the cheapest method of producing Circulars, Price Lists, 
Market Quotations, Pamphlets, Catalogues, Lawyers' Briefs, 
Contracts, Abstracts, Legal Documents, Manifests, Time 
Tables, Freight Tariffs, Labels, Letter and Bill Heads, Maps, 
Architectural and Mechanical Drawings, Bills of Fare, Music, 
Insurance Policies, Press Reports, Bankers' Forms, etc. 

2,000 of these instruments are in use among Railroad and 
Telegraph Companies and prominent Business Firms. 

Send for samples of work and description. 

GEO. H. BLISS, 

GENERAL MANAGER, 

220 to 232 Kinzie Street, Cliicago, III. 

E. D. GILLILAND, General Eastern Agent, 

20 New Church street, New York. 

W. F. WHEELER, General Western Agent, 

142 La Salle street, Chicago, EI. 

D. H. LOUDERBACK, Agent, 

1202 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Responsible and Energetic Agents wanted to introduce the 
Apparatus. 



Jan. 21, 181T.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



in 



TTTESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

220 KINZIE STREET, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Cash Capital and Surplus, $200,000 00. 

MANTJFACTUBERS AND JOBBERS 
OF 

ELECTEICAL 

AND 

Telegraphic Instruments anS Supplies. 

ANSON STAGER, 

President. 

ENOS M. BARTON, 

Secretary 
ELISHA GRAY,^ 

Electrician, 

GEO. H. BLISS, 

General Agent. 

BOSTON AGENCY, 

267 Washington Street. 

PHILADELPHIA AGENCY, 

1202 Chestnut Street. 

CINCINNATI AGENCY, 

166 Race Street. 



HpHE TELEGRAPHER. 



A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 
DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

OF THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 
of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 
Published every Saturday 

AT 

No. 20 CORTLANDT STREET (ROOM 5), 

NEW YORK. 



A. 



G. DAY, 

MANUFACTURER OF 



KERITE INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRE 
AND CABLES. 



J 

m 

life 



■ 

lii 

11 II 



m 



rpHE LECLANCHE 
J- BATTERY. 

THE WORLD RENOWNED 

Open Circuit Battery 

NO ACIDS ! 

ISO SULPHATE OF COPPER I 

DOES NOT FREEZE 2 

Will last from six months to several 
years Without Renewal. 



THIRTEENTH VOLUME. 

The THIRTEENTH VOLUME of THE TELEGRAPHER 
will commence with the number for JANUARY 6, 1877. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

is notable as the only telegraphic journal in the world which 
has been permanently established and maintained as an entirely 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 

relying exclusively upon the patronage received for its support. 
It is, and has been from the commencement of its publica- 
tion, the recognized representative of the PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHERS, and not conducted in the interest of any 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY, CLIQUE OB 
COMBINATION, 

As such it has been and will be honestly continued, so long as it 
shall receive the confidence and support of those whose interests 
it maintains, and whose cause it supports and advocates. 

It will enter upon its THIRTEENTH VOLUME with con- 
tinued excellent prospects, and its publisher confidently appeals 
to the TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY of the whole country 
to make it even more BRILLIANTLY SUCCESSFUL than it 
has been heretofore. 

Its columns are at all times open to the freest and fullest dis- 
cussion of all questions of interest and importance to the Fra- 
ternity, or the Telegraphic Art and Electrical Science in con- 
nection therewith. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 
patronage received, will be spared to improve its character and 
add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

FIRST CLASS INDEPENDENT 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON the 
AMERICAN CONTINENT. 

The popular features of the paper, which have heretofore 
secured to it the favor and approbation of those who are inter- 
ested in Electrical Science and Practical Telegraphy, will be re- 
tained, and new features introduced from time to time which 
will maintain its character and reputation, and render it more 
valuable and desirable to those for whom it is prepared. 

While due attention will continue to be paid to Scientific Elec- 
trical Developments and Practical Improvements in Telegraphy, 
it will be made popular and interesting by Sketches, Tales and 
Original Articles, which will be furnished exclusively for its 
columns by able writers. 

One specialty which renders it valuable is the complete sum- 
mary of information which is given in its columns relative to 
telegraphs, telegraphic progress, and telegraphers throughout 
the world, and which makes each volume a 

FULL AND ACCURATE HISTORY 
of the telegraphs for the year. 



IS ESPECIALLY ADAPTED to Electric Bells, Hotel and 
House Annunciators, Burglar Alarms, Medical Apparatus and 
all kinds of Open Circuit Work. Address, 

LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 

No. 40 West 18tli Street, or 
L. G-. TLLLOTSON-& CO., Sole Agents, 

8 Dey Street, New York. 



THE HIGHEST AND ONLY PREMIUM 
AWARDED. 




PAKTRICK & CARTER, 

38 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 

have received the highest and only Premium and Diploma 
awarded at the late Centennial Exhibition, upon their Cham- 
pion Learner's Apparatus, Giant Sounders and all Morse 
Telegraph Instruments. 

These goods are warranted better than the best and cheaper 
than the cheapest. 

Every description of Telegraph and Electrical Instruments 
and supplies constantly on hand. 

SEND FOR PRICE LISTS, CARDS AND CIRCULARS. 
Agent for California, 

GEO. POMEROY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Terms of Subscription. 

Invariably in Advance. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 

Dominion of Canada. 

Subscriptions may commence at any time. 

Rates of Advertising. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil), each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

One Column, " " 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will beforivardedfree on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty per Cent. 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for pour Sub- 
scribers at the regular price of subscription, $2 per year, will be 
entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
change in thbib addre.-s, must always send their old 
as well as their new address. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at tne risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will lie assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reason- 
able rates ; but no Advertisement will be inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPIIER must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P. O. Box 5503), NEW YORK, 



MANUFACTORY, 
SEYMOUR, CONN, 

OFFICE, 
ISO BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



The Di-electrical properties of Kerite have been tested in 
every conceivable manner during the last few years, and its 
superiority over all other kinds of insulation fully demon- 
strated. 

Its durability has been proved by constant exposure to the 
sun and atmospheric changes of the thousands of miles of 
covered wire in use by the Fire Alarm and Telegraph Com- 
panies in many of the principal cities of the country. It has 
been largely used in the City of New York, under all condi- 
tions and exposures, for the last nine years, and at the pres- 
ent time its resistance is as great as when first exposed. 

The facts are now fully established that Kerite is not inju 
riously affected by the extremes of heat and cold experienced 
in any climate, nor by length of exposure in the atmosphere, 
It will endure long continued heat below 200° Fahrenheit, 
while for short intervals it may be subjected to 250 or 300° ; 
and it may be safely immersed in boiling water. 

The action of water, salt or fresh, not only protects all its 
qualities, but very much improves its insulation. 
It is also unchanged by being placed in the ground. 
Any corrosive elements in the earth do not act upon it, nor 
is it injured by the roots of plants, which soon destroy gutta 
percha, 

Acids act very slowly upon it, and then only to the extent of 
oxydizing the surface. 

It will bear exposure to hot, strong solutions of alkalies with 
out injury. 

Mineral oils and illuminating gas, so far as known, do not 
produce any serious effect upon it. 
Exposure in a city gas pipe has not injured it. 
Thorough experiments have shown that it does not suffer in- 
jury by the most destructive insects of land or water. 

Samples of the core or insulated conductor of Kerite cables 
have for a long period been laid in the Caribbean Sea, yet the 
" teredo," which would have speedily destroyed other cables 
thus exposed, has left these entirely unharmed. And expert- 
mental lines on the Isthmus have been equally exempt from the 
ravages of the white ant, which destroys wood telegraph poles 
so rapidly that iron poles have been substituted. 

The same qualities which render it so indestructible by all 
corrosive agents, insure its durability for an indefinite period in 
all climates. 

Neither gutta percha nor vulcanized india rubber will bear 
storage in tropical climates without r<;pid deterioration, and 
undergoing chemical changes, which destroy their essential 
qualities, while under the same conditions the Kerite insulation 
is not changed in any respect. 

The Kerite covered wire is used almost exclusively by the 
United States Navy Department in the torpedo experiments 
which have been going on during the past three years. Prof. 
Farmer, the Government Instructor, says of it : "It fulfils the 
conditions required in the torpedo service better than any iiisu 
lator with which I am acquainted." 

John L. Lay, Esq., the inventor of the famous torpedo bearing 
his name, says that he thoroughly tested the Kerite cable in this 
country and also in Egypt, and finds it preferable to rubber or 
gutta percha, heat not affecting it, and so far as his experience 
goes, it is proof against the " teredo.'' 

Messrs. Gamewell & Co., proprietors of the American Fire 
Alarm and Police Telegraph, have used the Kerite wire for ten 
years. They say : " We have placed it in use in some sixty 
cities, extending from Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the north to 
New Orleans and San Francisco on the south and west, embrac- 
ing every variety of climate, and it has proved itself to be, under 
all circumstances, the most reliable and indestructible insulator 
known to us for telegraphic purposes." 

The experience of other parties using the Kerite coated wire 
overhead, underground and under water, is almost precisely 
similar, and is well summarized in the following opinion of 
George B. Prescott, Esq., the Electrician of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. Mr. Prescott says : "In September, 1809, 
we placed some of your Kerite wire, unprotected by any cover- 
ing whatever, in the tunnel under the river in Chicago, and 
have since continued its use in that exposed situation with the 
most gratifying results. A portion of the tunnel is very wet, 
and water, saturated with lime, constantly drips upon the wires, 
while in other portions they arc kept alternately wet and dry' 
which is well known to be one of the severest, tests that any in 
sulating material of an organic nature can be subjected to ; and 
yet, after five years' exposure, under the above conditions, the 
Kerite covering shows no signs of decay or deterioration. An 
insulating covering of india rubber or gutta percha under a like 
exposure, would have been destroyed in much less time." 

For further particulars address 

A. G. DAY, 

120 Broadway, New York. 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Jan. 2t, 18T7. 



AMERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 

G-AMEWELL & CO., Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY, NKW YORK. 

J. W. STOVER, 

General Agent and Superintendent 

I), B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- West. 
TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND MANUF'G 00., Cleveland, Ohio, 
Special Agents for the Middle States 
J. E. DOWELL, Richmond, Va., 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina. 
J, A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 
L. M. MONROE, New Canaan, Conn,, 

Special Agent for New England 
ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO., 
San .Francisco, Cal., 
Speoial Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada 

THIS BI81EM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE, 

OK 

UPON THE AUTOMATIC PLAN, 

is now In operation in the following Cities, to which reference Is 

made lor evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



Albany, N. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass., 
Bridgeport, Conn., 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Oharlestown, Mass., 
Chelsea, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass., 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Fond du Lac, Wis., 
Earrisburg, Penn., 
Hartford, Ooun., 
Halifax, N. S., 
Hyde Park, 111., 
Indianapolis, Ind., 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Kalamazoo, Mioh., 
Lansingburg, N. Y., 
Louisville, Ky., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Manchester, N. H., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee, Wis., 
Minneopolis, Minn., 
New York City, 



New Orleans, La. ( 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Nashville, Tenn., 
Newton, Mass., 
Newport, Ky., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Portland, Oregon. 
Paterson, N. J., 
Pawtucket, R. I., 
Quebec, L. C, 
Reading, Pa., 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo., 
St. John, N. B. T 
St. Paul, Minn., " 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga. , 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Somerville, Miss., 
Terre Haute, Ind., 
Troy, N. Y., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
West Roxbury, Mass., 
Washington, D. 0., 
Worcester, Mass. 



The Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

First— The Automatic Hepeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of cirouits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constant per- 
gonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second The Automatic Signal Boxes. 

Third— TSie Eleetro-Meclianical Bell Strikers, 
adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 

belli. 
Fourth The Electro-ittecliamical Gong Striker, 

far hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 

the fife is instantaneously communicated to the members of 

each fire company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PERFECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

Off 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 
IN THE WORLD. 
It is a sufficient vindication of the claims wbioh are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FIRE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few Instances in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems Saving demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMSWELIi & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER c6 CHANNINQ PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which has just been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 
MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important improvement which the Proprietors have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM. 

the introduction and operation of which involves so little ex- 
pense. compared to the benefit which it comers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain It. 
The American System of 

TITLE ALAEM AND POLICE TELEGEAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AND THE 

PRESS 
throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 
EFFICIENCY, 

EELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 
of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives Which have been preserved 
through ths general adoption of this sjstem, throughout the 
UNITED STATES and the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, them: 

CAN 3E NO QUESTION. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing it* in- 

troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 

their efforts will be duly appreciated and 

compensated. 

Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authoriues and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graphy, upon application as above. 



QIEND FOE CATALOGUE. 
LOW PEICES AND 20 PER CENT. DISCOUNT. 

WATTS AND COMPANY, 

BALTIMORE, MD., 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Telegraph and Electrical Material 

AND 

SUPPLIES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

including first class Morse Instruments of all styles and designs. 

Best LINE WIRE in the country. Office and Magnet Wire. 

Insulators of every kind, including our NEW PORCELAIN 
INSULATORS. 

Our beautiful and effective MAIN LINE SOUNDER is still the 
best in use. Price (key on base), $22.50. 

Our POCKET RELAY is the best and cheapest made. Price 
$16.00. 

We keep in Stock a full line of American District material at 
prices that defy competition. Our new 

SELF-STARTING AND STOPPING REGISTER. 

BATTERY' MATERIAL of every kind, including our cele- 
brated 

BALTIMORE BATTERY, 

Electric Bells, Annunciators for Hotels and Private Houses, 
Burglar Alarms. 

LEARNERS' INSTRUMENTS, 

FOE SCHOOLS, SHORT LINES AND STUDENTS 

No. 1. Outfit complete $8.00 

Key and Sounder 6.75 

Battery, per cell 1.25 

No. 2. Outfit complete 6.00 

Key and Sounder 5.00 

Battery, per cell 1.00 

When complete set purchased, Wire and Chemicals and Book 
of Instructions are included. Special quotations for large 
Quantities or schools. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 

just published. Contains useful knowledge for telegraphers 
and those who contemplate purchasing, with a reduced price list 
from which we will, till further notice, allow a discount of 20 
per cent, on instruments when sent C. O. D., or when cash ac- 
companies order. 

THE TELEGRAPHERS' MUTUAL 
BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

Established October 22, 1867. 

ITS OBJECT IS TO AID THE FAMILIES OF 
DECEASED MEMBE&S, 

BY PAYMENT TO THE MEIRS OF $1,000. 

Any person who is, or who has been employed in telegraph 
service in any capacity, may become a member of this Associa- 
tion upon giving proof of good health and habits and payment 
of the required fees. 

INITIATION FEE, $2.00. 

Payments required : One Dollar upon the Death 
of each Member. 

Application blanks, copies of the By-Laws and other informa- 
tion furnished upon application, to the Secretary, or any of the 
Agents. 

The attention of former members of the Association is called 
to the following resolution, passed at the last Annual Meeting 
of the Association : 

Resolved, That delinquent members shall be eligible to renewed, 
membership on payment of back dues to an amount not exceed- 
ing itve dollars, and without further initiation fee. 

W. HOLMES, Secretary. J. D. REID, Treasurer. 

Box 3175, New York. 

N. B.— Members will please note change in number of Post 
Office Box. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic Views of the Operating Room 
and Switch of the New York Office have been taken and will be 
sold for the benefit of the Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation. 

REDUCED PRICES AS FOLLOWS : 

Operating Room, 10x14 inches $1 25 

" " 8x10 " 75 

Switch,8xl0 75 

Stereoscopic Views. 

Operating Room o 35 

Switch 35 

Address orders for any of the above to the Secretary of the 
Association. 



Feb. 3, 1811.1 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



25 



The Telegrapher 

fi. JOURNAL OF 

ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 



J. 


N 
















SATURDAY, 


FEBRUARY 3, 1811. 




VOL 


. XIII. 


WHOLE No. 


551 



Third Annual Reception of the New York Tele- 
graphers' Association. 

The Third Annual Reception and Ball of the New 
York Telegraphers' Association was held at Trenor's 
Lyric Hall, Sixth avenue and Forty-second street, on 
Wednesday evening of last week, and proved to be, in 
every respect, a most successful and distingue affair. 

The hall, which has become somewhat noted as the 
scene of first class social entertainments, was elegantly 
decorated. Flowers were abundant, and were arranged 
in a manner at once typical and elegant. 

At ten o'clock the musicians, under the skilled lead- 
ership of Mr. Adolph Bernstein, sounded the opening 
grand march " Welcome," and the promenade, prelimi- 
nary to the dancing, began. The dancing which suc- 
ceeded was generally participated in by those present, 
and the most skeptical, to have witnessed the scene, 
would have been convinced that this was indeed one of 
the social events of the season. 

Without going into particulars, which want of space 
prevents, it may be safely asserted that it would be diffi- 
cult to bring together, at an assemblage of its size, so 
many handsome and elegantly dressed ladies. Fine 
looking men, too, were the rule, and so was that bugbear 
of most easy going men— r the claw-hammer or regulation 
dress coat. From this point out "our ball " was a great 
deal like other first class parties. Dancing continued 
until an early hour in the morning with unabated energy 
and enjoyment, with an intermission during the evening 
to visit the supper room, where an elegant and bountiful 
repast was spread, to which full justice was done. 

After supper dancing was resumed until, at last, the 
end of the programme was reached, and, to the strains 
of "Home, Sweet Home," the company, weary but 
happy, retired to seek needed repose; aud the "Third 
Annual Reception " passed into history like its prede- 
cessors. 

Among the prominent guests present were Hon. Wm. 
Orion, accompanied by his daughter; 0. H. Palmer, Esq., 
Mr. Cyrus W. Field, Mr. Geo. G-. Ward, Superintendent 
Direct Cable, and Mr. George B. Hubbell, of Hartford, 
Conn. 

But one opinion has been heard in regard to this enter- 
tainment, and that is highly complimentary to its man- 
agers. Mr. A. H. Watson, the President of the Associa- 
tion, had the matter principally in charge, and labored 
energetically to make it the success which it proved to 
be. He has certainly established his right to be con- 
sidered a first class ball manager, and will doubtless here- 
after find his services in frequent requisition in that 
capacity. 

All objectionable features were omitted, aud it must be 
conceded that, taken as a whole, it was the most suc- 
cessful, satisfactory and creditable telegraphers' enter- 
tainment that has, as yet, taken place in this city. 



Bell's Telephone. 

At the meeting of the Washington Philosophical So- 
ciety, on the evening of the 13th January, Mr. Bell, the 
inventor, gave to the members a description of the con- 
struction aud operation of his most admirable and won- 
derful invention, aud exhibited it in operaiion. The 
instruments were contained in two similar plain wooden 
boxes, about 12x8x8 inches. Each contained a perma- 
nent steel horseshoe magnet of about eight inches in 
length, with armatures consisting of two small cylindric 
rods of wrought iron, each about five eighths inch diam- 
eter aud three inches long. These armatures are wrapped 
with a fine insulated wire, connected at one end with 
the earth, and at the other with a telegraph wire of some 
hundreds of feet in length, which connected the two 
boxes. Placed very close to, but not quite touching the 
ends of the soft iron armatures in each box, was a plate 
of thin Russia sheet iron, about six inches square and 
one thirty-second inch thick. These wore each at- 
tached by four corners to a block of wood, of one inch 
thickness and about six inches square. la the centre of 
each wooden block a piece of gutta percha speaking tube, 
two or three feet in length, with a mouthpiece, was in- 
serted. The mouthpiece and the greater part of the 
tube hurig down outside the box. One of the boxes was 



placed on a table in one room and the other in another 
room. The operator spoke or sung into the mouthpiece 
of one box and the hearer, applying the mouthpiece of 
the tube of the other box to his ear in the distant room, 
heard the words spoken or sung repeated in a whisper. 
The sound was not loud enough to be overheard by the 
bystanders. It was, however quite intelligible to the 
ear at the end of the gutta percha tube. 

In this case the wire through which the communica- 
tions were transmitted was only a few hundred feet in 
length. But the experiment has been successfully made 
where the two operators or the operator and the hearer 
were in different cities, 153 miles apart. Mr. Bell con- 
verses habitually in Boston with a friend in Cambridge 
through eight miles of telegraph wire. A greater dis- 
tance than 153 miles has not been tried, but by placing 
in the circuit of telegraph wire instruments to increase 
the resistance, it has been found that the effect is pro- 
duced, and the communication is audible through a re- 
sistance more than equivalent to that of a line of 3,000 
miles — to that of the Atlantic cable. 

To Mr. Bell's exquisitely clear and intelligible expla- 
nation of the steps of his discovery, perhaps for want of 
familiar technical knowledge, we may not be able to do 
justice. His first experiments were made, as he stated, 
with a telegraphic circuit through which was passing a 
current of electricity generated by a battery. But finally 
he discarded the battery, and the telephone now depends 
upon the changes in the intensity of the current of elec- 
tricity in an electro-magnetic helix, caused by approach- 
ing to its poles a soft iron armature and then removing 
the armature to a greater distance. As the plate of sheet 
iron which serves as this advancing and receding soft 
iron armature vibrates under the influence of the vibra- 
tion of the air caused by the voice, it changes its distance 
from the poles of the electric magnet which itself is 
attached to the permanent horseshoe magnet. The cur- 
rent of electricity through the helices of wire wrapped 
round these soft iron rods is transmitted with all its varia- 
tions of intensity to the electro-magnetic armature of the 
other magnet in its box at the distant end of the circuit, 
and as the magnetic attractive force of this electro-magnet 
varies under the changes' of intensity of the current, it 
attracts with greater or less force the soft iron plate in 
front of its poles. This varying attraction sets up in the 
plate a vibration exactly corresponding to that of the 
plate in the speaking box, and the vibratiou of this plate 
produces in the air in contact with it just such a vibra- 
tion as that which air agitated by the voice had induced 
in the speaker's plate of soft iron. This vibration it is 
that the distant listener hears, not, it is true, as a full 
spoken voice, but as a whisper, and perfectly intelligible. 
There is yet much to study, much to discover and in- 
vent to facilitate and make certain the commercial use of 
the "Telephone." While the sounds are all .repeated 
there is a difficulty in distinguishing between such con- 
sonants as P, T and K. The sound is a low whisper, 
and it requires an acute and attentive ear to follow the 
distant speakers with absolute certainty. No doubt the 
means of increasing the volume of the sound will be 
found. But the discovery and use of what Mr. Bell styles 
the undulating current of electricity — i. e., of a current 
whose density or intensity is made to vary as the density 
of the air or of a rod of iron or metal through which 
sound is transmitted to a distance varies in their vibra- 
tions — is one of the most brilliant inventions of modern 
times, and the clear and modest description of it given to 
the Washington Philosophical Society on Saturday eve- 
ning last by Mr. Bell, will long be remembered with de- 
light by those who were happy enough to be present. 

Its applications are numberless. The merchant may 
converse with his partner in a distant city or give his or- 
ders to his factory in the suburbs of his own town, or from 
his room may speak with the foreman or chief clerk in any 
room of a large establishment. 

There is reason to hope that the Secretary of Slate 
may be able, before long, to discuss by mouth and ear 
questions of national importance with the Ministers of 
Foreign Affairs at all the great cities of Europe and with 
the Governors of all our American States. . There is a 
certain analogy between the telephone and an experiment 
shown many years since to his class at Princeton by 
Professor Henry. He placed a rod of soft clear piue 
wood in contact with the sounding board of a piano, and 
extended it across the street to the sounding board of a 
piano in another house, splicing it where necessary. On 
playing an air on one piano the other repeated the same 
air. All the complicated vibrations of the strings were 
passed through the single wooden rod, and were ana- 
lyzed, selectedand repeated by the sounding board and 
strings of the distant instrument. 

So the vibrations, complicated, rapid, simultaneous, 
produced in the sheet iron plate of the speaking instru- 
ment, are, by means of a varying electric current passing 
through a wire for a hundred and fifty miles, communi- 
cated to, and excited in the distant iron plate, and by it 
analyzed, selected and repeated, and communicated to 
the air surrounding it, and thence made sensible to the 
ear applied to the end of the speaking tube. But in the 
case of the wooden rod it is supposed that the vibrations 



themselves travel. In Bell's Electric Telephone it is 
the current of electricity which, by the varying attractive 
force of the distant magnet, excites in the distant plate 
the corresponding vibrations. M. 

— Washington (D. C.) Star. 



The Society of Telegraph Engineers' Annual 
Meeting. 

The annual general meeting of the Society of Tele- 
graph Engineers was held at the Institution of Civil En- 
gineers, 25 Great George street, London, on the evening 
of Wednesday, December 13, 1876— Mr. C.V.Walker, 
F. R. S., President, in the chair. 

The President informed the members that a very hand- 
some marble bust of the late Sir Francis Ronalds had 
been presented to the Society by Dr. C. W. Siemens, its 
first President, and that in addition a number of valuable 
presents in the shape of portraits, cable specimens, and 
forms of apparatus had been given to the society by 
Messrs. Latimer Clark, Frank Webb, and the Presi- 
dent. 

A long list of new candidates for admission was an- 
nounced, and the annual report of the President and 
Council was read. The society is increasing satisfactorily 
in members, the total of all classes being now nearly 
800. The appointment of local honorary secretaries 
throughout the world had proved so beneficial that they 
were extending their number wherever it was desirable. 
The only drawback to the success of the society was, it 
was stated, the difficulty in obtaining the arrears of sub- 
scriptions. 

The ballot'for the election of the President and Coun- 
cil for the ensuing year resulted as follows: 

President — Professor Abel, F. R. S. 

Vice-Presidents — Major J. U. Bateman Champain, Carl 
Siemens, M. I. C. E. ; W. H. Preece, M. I. C. E.; Prof 
G. C. Foster, F. R. S. 

Members— Prof. W. G. Adams, F. R. S. ; H. G. Erich- 
sen, Colonel Glover, Edward Graves, Charles Hockin, M. 
I. C. E. ; Capt. Armstrong, R. E. ; Willoughby Smith, 
Robert Sabine, C. E. Spaguoletti, Capt. Anderson, R. E. ; 
C. F. Yarley, F. R. S., M. I. C. E. 

Associates — Frederick Higgins, H. R. Kempe, E. T. 
Truman. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



A Cable Grapnel. 

At a recent meeting of the British Society of Tele- 
graph Engineers a new form of cable grapnel was ex- 
hibited by the Western and Brazilian Telegraph Com- 
pany, and explained by Mr. A. Jamieson. Cable lifting 
being an operation moved far beyond the sphere of ordi- 
nary observation, most people are ignorant of the pecu- 
liar difficulties by which it is surrounded. Of these, the 
breaking of grapnels is one of the most frequent and 
serious, and Mr. Jamieson's invention is designed to 
overcome this difficulty. The ordinary grapnel is fur- 
nished with rigid prongs, which, although perfectly well 
calculated to seize and bring the cable to the surface, are 
also liable to become fastened to rocks and other sub- 
stances, and to break with the slightest strain of the 
ship. Of such frequent occurrence is this, indeed, that 
all cable ships are compelled to carry a very large stock 
of grapnels on board, and have often to return to port 
without accomplishing their task, owing to loss and 
breakage. Mr. Jamieson has furnished his grapnel wilh 
hinged prongs, governed by a spring, which yields at a 
given strain, so that the momenta rock is "hooked " the 
grapnel slides off and comes to the surface. It is, in fact, 
an octopus-like machine, which puts forth its " feelers " 
in search of the real article, and draws them back the 
moment any counterfeit substance seeks to entangle 

them. 

*-*-* 

Chicago (111.) Telegraphic Notes. 

Billy Perrin is solid with the Milwaukee boys, and the 
way they do handle business on that quad, in the W. U. 
main office nights, when Billy is at this end, is a cautiou 
to snakes, bugs, etc. 

"Oh, Lord!" That's what they say every time "R. H." 
comes around, just as if he couldn't be R. II. Lord and 
be let alone; but ho makes those "Bu " and Indianapolis 
fellows sling ink aud hunt brass when he gets warmed 
up, aud when he gets a focus with those feelers of his 
on that special papor, they might turn on the automatic 
and ho would put it down as long as his pen and ink 
held out. 

Mr. T. E. Gore graces the Metropolitan side of the 
house nights in the W. U. main office, and helps "Andy " 
Shollinglaw to keep business clear. 

"Charlie" Vestal says he don't want any notoriety, 
so it is not necessary to mention the fact that ho was out 
witli the boys a low nights ago. The Omaha W. U. 
boys persist in having him, aud no one else, when he's 
around, to work one side of that duplex with them. 



26 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Feb. 3, 18TT. 



Our old friend " Billy " "Wallace keeps right on doing 
the handsome thing, as he has for some time past, and 
is always found at his post days in the W. TJ. here, on 
the first or second 1ST. T. " dup." 

Old time " Jack " Spalding has braced up. No more 
"bugs" for Jack. Every night, as regular as the be- 
witching hour of six is announced by the hand of time, 
as illustrated by the electric clock on the north wall of 
the handsome W. U. main operating room, the ashes are 
knocked from that old pipe, and Jack takes his seat on 
one side or the other of the N. T. duplex. 

Mr. J. M. Wright went with S. O. Bracken to Spring- 
field, 111., to help them out during the recent democratic 
blow out and the session of the Legislature, etc. Both 
are highly praised for their efficiency. " J. M." hooped 
it up so fast to the boys here that the "sounder would 
not follow the relay." For some reason or other the 
sounder got behind the relay nearly thirty or forty words 
sometimes. It acted the worst for Dan Sweet — he 
couldn't get it to keep up no how. 

Mr. D. H. Louderback, agent for the Western Electric 
Manufacturing Company, has gone to Philadelphia, Pa., 
as agent for that company. 

Mr. Amsden, of the W. TJ. day force, also, Mr. E. 
Stephens, of the same, are taking a month's vacation. 

Messrs. E. M. Anson, James Layman and Fred. Leon- 
hardt are with the Board of Trade Telegraph Co. here, 
and all take The Telegrapher. 

Mr. Thos. R. Knox has relinquished the management 
of the W. TJ. Co.'s Tremont House office, and it has been 
moved out of his segar and news stand. 

It is now hoped that the infant daughter of Mr. Joe 
Unwin, Manager M. C. R. R. general and branch tele- 
graph offices in this city, is out of danger. She has been 
lingering with brain fever between life and death for 
some time ; once the doctors gave her up, but the next 
morning she seemed to rally. Her excellent constitu- 
tion, inherited from healthy parents, has borne her up. 
The fraternity here all are gratified to think that their 
old friend and associate is not to be deprived of the only 
well-spring of joy in his family, and echo the hope that 
she may soon be so far convalescent as to relieve their 
burdened minds of the strain of anxiety to which they, 
and especially the mother, have been necessarily sub- 
jected in taking care of the little invalid. 

Sunday, the 21st, was the day, and 11 o'clock, A.M., 
the time, when those interested in a telegrapher's ball 
for the season were to meet and make preliminary ar- 
rangements. Owing to a number of causes, but eight 
or ten of the representative men were present; but, 
nothing daunted, they undertook the arduous task. Re- 
membering the almost general dissatisfaction of last year 
in not having invitations printed in advance of tickets, 
etc., they did not adjourn over, but went right to work, 
made up the committees, selected the Hall (Martine's 
West Side), and ordered the printing, etc- The result is 
the invitations are now out two weeks previous to the 
time for the ball (February 12th), and as everybody will 
get an invitation, nobody will be slighted, and will only 
have himself or herself to blame, as the case may be, or 
the fates that oft decree things contrary to our wishes, 
if they don't go and enjoy themselves. 

The improvements spoken of in a communication from 
here recently are rapidly being pushed forward. Already 
the Associated Press have moved into a room on the floor 
directly under the W. TJ. operating room, fronting on 
La Salle street, and fitted it up in fine style. A pneu- 
matic and drop tube are in operation for sending and re- 
ceiving boxes from the operating room. These come 
directly up to the stand where the main office tubes are 
attended to by a corps of efficient boys. The lunch room, 
as well as Col. Wilson's room, on the same floor as the 
Associated Press, are well under way, and will probably 
soon be occupied. No doubt you will get a full descrip- 
tion, when completed, from some of your many corres- 
pondents here. 

Mr. Eddie Dennis, Manager A. & P. Board of Trade 
office, having resigned that position to accept a more 
lucrative one with the well known commission firm of 
G-illett, Clark & Knight, Mr. Ed. Angell, recently acting 
night manager of A. & P. main office (during night 
manager Sunny's absence), formerly pay roll and time 
clerk to manager's Swain and Maynard, of the W. TJ. 
main office operating force, Chicago, was appointed man- 
ager in Mr. Dennis' place. The appointment gives uni- 
versal satisfaction. Ed. will have a good chance to use 
his conversational powers to advantage now. 

Mr. G-eorgo Richardson, formerly chief operator A. & 
P. main office, has accepted a position on the day force 
of the same company's office. He's the same George as 
he was when chief, and the boys think just as much of 
him, as they know he faithfully performed his arduous 
duties, and never imposed upon them needless work. 
He seems free as air since the official burden has been 
lifted from his shoulders; no responsibility now but his 
little wire. 

Prof. E. Payson Porter, formerly of the W. U. main 
office operating day force, is actively engaged in the 
State Sunday School work, in this, State. This, in con- 



nection with the laborious duties of his position as statis- 
tical secretary of the Sunday School Union, keeps him 
engaged almost day and night. 

Mr." Dug." Burnett, formerly of the W. U. day force 
here, is with the same company at Buffalo, flourishing 
like a green bay tree, or any other northern pine. 

Mr. J. C. Bale, of the Western Union day operating 
force, is the finest bass singer on the force. 

Mr. N. M. Erickson is the gentlemanly little operator 
who succeeded Mr. Denise at the Commercial Hotel. 

Mr. M. F. Cunningham, the chief operator of the Chi- 
cago and Pacific R. R. lines, although young in years, 
knows how to take care of the business in that depart- 
ment so as to win the confidence of his employers and 
the esteem and respect of the boys at the same time. 

Mr. W. F. McMillan, of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul R. R. Co.'s Clark street office, is one of the boys. 
Although no relation of " Billy " at the Western Union 
main office, he's just about as large and funny. 

If you should happen in the Clark street office of the 
L. S. & M. S. R. R. Company, you will miss the beaming 
countenance of the genial Edson, but will be as nicely 
entertained as you ever were in your life by Mr. J. S. 
Smith, who so ably fills his positien. Give him a call, 
boys. 

Mr. Geo. S. Hall still continues to improve, and is 
growing better looking every day. Having had the 
fever seems to agree with him. Hope he will be able to 
Rail himself around among us many years yet. The 
shake of that left hand is always hearty. 

Mr. W. V. O'Connor, although but a short time since 
from the " ould sod," is fast becoming Americanized, and 
mastering Morse as rapidly as he did Continental in his 
more youthful days. He'il make his mark yet. 

There is uncalled for mail matter in the W. U. main 
office as follows: Paper, for J. P. Boughan. Postal Cards, 
for E. F. Whittlesey, postmarked, Springfield, Mass. 
Letters, H. J. Foreman, Mr. Chas. K. Cralle, postmarked 
Town Creek, Ala.; S. Gass, Esq., Houston, Texas; M. A. 
Smith, and E. Stephens. 



The Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association. 

Assessments 91 and 92, February 1, 1 8TT. 

Death of Geo. L. Ruggles and Philltp Schaffer. 

Geo. L. Ruggles died of consumption at Boston, Mass., 
January 4, 1877. His certificate, No. 1344, was issued 
January 15, 1872. 

Phillip Schaffer died of consumption at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, January 14, 1877. His certificate, No. 831, was 
issued Mav 10, 1870. 

Two dollars are due for assessments 91 and 92 from 
members holding certificates numbered up to and includ- 
ing No. 2852, and one dollar is due for assessment 92 
from members holding certificates numbered from 2852 
to and including No. 2860. 

Members who have not remitted for assessments 89 
and 90 of December 30, 1876, will please consider this 
a duplicate notice that such assesessments are due, and 
should be paid at once. 

receipt of assessments. 

New York, January 25, 1877. 
Assessment No. 90. 



mxvmmtimt. 



28, 29, 38, 46, 59, 60, 
144, 172, 176, 177, 179, 
240, 254, 267, 278, 279 
350, 351, 353, 379, 383, 
532, 533, 546, 552, 554 
649, 659, 662, 663, 664 
685, 701, 722, 750, 751 
809, 831, 843, 855, 916, 
1001, 1005, 1023, 1024, 
1153, 1167, 1173, 1178, 
1288, 1289, 1294, 1295, 
1348, 1349, 1350, 1351, 
1358, 1364, 1365, 1366, 
1403, 1404, 1410, 1412, 
1508, 1513, 1517, 1518, 
1582, 1586, 1590, 1620, 
1707, 1708, 1713, 1721, 
1812, 1818, 1841, 1852, 
1991, 1997, 1999, 2000, 
2044, 2046, 2050, 2074, 
2142, 2145, 2172, 2174, 
2233, 2241, 2243, 2244, 
2296, 2297, 2298, 2304, 
2360, 2371, 2389, 2392, 
2412, 2413, 2419, 2421, 
2470, 2478, 2479, 2483, 
2513, 2515, 2523, 2532, 
2558, 2559, 2570, 2571, 
2607, 2608, 2609, 2610, 
2637, 2638, 3639, 2642 
2653, 2654, 2655, 2661 
2694, 2696, 2710, 2711 
2738, 2741, 2743, 2748. 
2787, 2795, 2804, 2805, 



72. 93, 95, 113, 141. 142, 143, 

, 183, 184, 201, 202, 218, 220, 

, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 319, 

, 391, 392, 393, 431, 441, 464, 

, 566, 587, 590, 603, 617, 642. 

, 665, 667, 669, 672, 678, 680, 

, 756, 772, 787, 791, 803, 808, 

923, 932. 953, 978, 980, 1000, 

1054, 1077, 1147, 1148, 1153, 

1196, 1200, 1210, 1251, 1255, 

1329, 1339, 1340, 1342, 1346, 

1352, 1353, 1454, 1355, 1356, 

1368. 1376, 1390, 1391, 1402, 

1427, 1440, 1481, 1482, 1484, 

1554. 1555, 1560, 1568, 1573, 

1628, 1630, 1634, 1635, 1666, 

1735, 1736, 1785, 1810, 1811, 

1915, 1950, 1951, 1953, 1957, 

2001, 2005, 2028, 2029, 2030, 

2075, 2097, 2119, 2120, 2135, 

2199, 2204, 2205, 2206, 2212, 

2258, 1259, 2263, 2293, 2295, 

2309, 2314, 2316, 2317, 1348, 

2393, 2395, 2396, 2397, 2398, 

2425, 2426, 2444, 2452, 2468, 

2484, 2486, 2487, 2495, 2497, 

2535, 2539, 2543, 2551, 2553, 

2583, 2598, 2599, 2604, 2606, 

2611, 2617, 2619, 2629, 2636, 

2646, 2647, 2648, 2650. 2651, 

, 2662, 2663, 2668, 2669, 2683, 

, 2712, 2716, 2722, 2723, 2736, 

, 2749, 2750, 2751, 2752, 2760, 

, 2807. 

A. H. Watson, Secretary, 



We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of our 
Correspondents. Our columns are open to free discussions 
on all Telegraphic subjects, without distinction of person or 
opinion. 

No notice will be taken of anonymous communications. 



Automatic Telegraphy. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

So much has been written and published within the 
past few years upon automatic telegraphy, that it is 
possible, aye, probable, that the subject is worn out, and 
has ceased to be interesting to the brotherhood of tele- 
graphers. I do not propose to discuss the merits or de- 
merits of this system or of any other, but I do propose to 
prove, to the satisfaction even of doubting Thomases, 
that all — I use the word in its full sense — all the claims to 
improvements in the rapidity of transmissions of signals 
put forth and even sustained by issues of Letters Patent 
for the same, by the U. S. Patent office, are absolutely 
void, and that the claimed improvements were not only 
used, but published to the world years before their great 
discoveries were certified by the U. S. Patent office to be 
new inventions. 

The first claim to improvement which I shall examine, 
is that put forth by the self-styled inventor of the Ameri- 
can automatic telegraph system — which I find fully de- 
scribed in a letter from this inventor, published in The 
Telegrapher on the 31st Oct., 1874. I quote his own 
words, as follows : 

" It being premised that previous to my discovery 
' Bain ' and all other electricians directed the whole force 
of the line current on the chemically prepared receiving 
paper, thereby allowing the waves or pulsations of elec- 
tricity to " coalesce," and to produce a continuous mark 
or line instead of clear and distinct marks. * * * * 
On the other hand, I was led by a train of reasoning to 
study, in connection with this problem, the operations of 
a ' Mill Race,' with its regulating sluices, which resulted 
in the introduction of the overflow magnetic or accumu- 
lation rheostat ' dam,' This, then, is the great dis- 
covery—the " overflow magnetic or accumulation rheostat 
1 dam.' " 

This grandiloquent title does not explain itself, but 
by referring to the diagram furnished by the inventor 
and published in The Telegrapher, it appears that the 
inventor has conferred this title to a derivation to the 
earth through a rheostat from the main line near to the 
receiving instrument. 

This derivation through a rheostat to the earth at the 
receiving end of the line is the result, of which the in- 
ventor says in a letter published in The Telegrapher of 
July 11, 1874 (I quote his own words), the result "of 
my experimental investigations in relation to the then sup- 
posed insurmountable difficulty, which was the discovery 
and introduction by myself of what I designate the overflow 
dam at the receiving end of a line, whereby the, speed 
was increased for all practical purposes." This great dis- 
covery is claimed to have been made in 1869, and the U. 
S. patent therefor obtained in 1870. 

Such a discovery may have been made by this inven- 
tor in 1869, but that fact cannot disprove the fact that 
Caselli had made use of precisely such a derivation to the 
earth in his automatic chemical telegraph on the tele- 
graph lines of France in 1863. Strange coincidence — 
Caselli in 1863, and the inventor of the American Auto- 
matic system in 1869 make the same discovery. 

A full description of Caselli's system can be found in 
Du Moncel, " Exposi des Applications de l'Electrici," 
vol. 4, pages 302 to 322. 

Caselli modestly refers to this improvement as " a 
derivation to the earth on which is placed a rheostat 
near to the receiving instrument." I quote from the 
author above referred to, who describes a rheostat in- 
vented by Caselli to be used on this derivation — and, 
wonderful to say, Letters Patent for a similar rheostat 
was issued by the U. S. Patent office in 1870 to the in- 
ventor of the American Automatic system. Here, again, 
are -Casselli in 1863 and the American inventor in 1870. 
Strange ! The facts established are, that Casselli used this 
derivation to the earth in 1863, and the American gave 
to this invention in 1869 the grandiose title above stated. 
I quote the following words of this American inventor, 
published in The Telegrapher of 31st October, 1874: 

" By virtue of controlling patents, I claim the clearing 
" of a main line of an electro-chemical automatic tele- 
" graph by an overflow ' rheostat dam,' leakages, reversals, 
"or by opposing currents, in order to produce rapid work 
"in any state of the weather on any length of line." 

Here are claims for three inventions. 
1st. The overflow rheostat dam. It is certainly evi- 
dent that Caselli used such a device in 1863, but he did 
not give to it that name with which it was baptized 
when the American investor made his discovery gf ^ |p 
1869, 



Feb. 3, 1871] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



27 



2d claim — "leakages." By referring to Du Moncel, 
vol. 4, page 305, will be found those words describing 
Casein system. " Derivations of the current from the line, 
instead of acting unfavorably on the receiving instrument, 
on the contrary are very useful, and "it is necessary to 
" produce them by establishing near to the receiving in- 
" strumeut a derivation to the earth on which is placed a 
" rheostat." Here, again, we have Caselli, in 1863, using 
such a device, and the American inventor discovering the 
same device in 1870. 

3d claim — "reversals, or by opposing currents." Here, 
again, we find another strange coincidence in discovery of 
the same principles— Caselli, in 1863, and the American 
inventor in 1870. In Du Moncel, page 302, vol. 4th, will 
be found a drawing of the CaseJli system of " reversals and 
opposing currents," and on page 305, these words occur, 
" this counter current has naturally, for effect, to neutralize 
on the receiver the current of discharge, which continues 
the electro-chemical action, which prevents the distinct- 
ness of the electro-chemical marks by prolonging them." 

This system of "reversals or opposing currents " in 
electro-chemical as well as in all other telegraphs, was 
used by Bonelli, on the line between Liverpool and Man- 
chester prior to 1863, as described by Du Moncel, vol. 4, 
page 337, also by Lenoir in 1867. See Du Moncel, page 
355, vol. 4th. 

The system of " reversals or opposing currents," 
claimed by the inventor of the American automatic sys- 
tem, seems to be coeval with the first use of telegraphs. 

Wheatstone & Cooke's patent of 1840 contains this sys- 
tem ; Bain's in 1846, and it is found in almost all the sys- 
tems invented since that period. 

In regard to the chemical solution with which the re- 
ceiving paper should be impregnated, it is admitted that 
a solution of iodide of potassium, mixed with a little pure 
wheaten starch, is the most sensitive to the action of a 
current of electricity, and such a solution was used by 
Caselli prior to 1863. 

It is generally thought that the marks on this paper 
fade very rapidly, but Cooke found a simple means to 
render them sufficiently durable. I have now in my 
possession a despatch received on paper saturated with a 
special solution of iodide of potassium over a line of 250 
miles, at a speed of 600 words in one minute, in July, 
1875, more than eighteen months ago, and yet it is per- 
fectly legible. 

In fact there are numerous solutions readily acted upon 
by the electric current, which has been used by different 
electricians. 

So far, then, as the " American automatic system" of 
this invention is superior to that of Bain, the original in 
ventor of the automatic chemical telegraph, it owes that 
superiority to the discoveries made and used and pub- 
lished to the world years before the inventor of the Ameri- 
can automatic system made his discoveries. 

W. C. B. 



A New Telegraph Line Built. — Lively Telegraph- 
ing-.— Telegraphic Oregonians in Wash- 
ington.— A Brilliant Scheme. 

Albany, Oregon, January 13. 
To the Editor or The Telegrapher. 

New Years is generally a good time for overhauling 
your "manifest," and trying to see if there is anything 
wrong, and checking up on all doubtful matters. I find 
one wrong in mine. I am going to remedy, and that is to 
be more prompt in keeping up my lick in The Tele- 
grapher. I used to be right on it, but during the past 
year my time has been so lully occupied in other depart- 
ments that the telegraph has not had very much of my 
attention ; not as much as I could wish ; but here goes 
for a new count, and I hope the returning board next 
year will give a good report. 

Telegraphic matters, aside from the election, have not 
been rushing at all ; though since my last an entire new 
and much needed telegraph improvement has been con- 
structed ; I refer to the Coos Bay Line, built from Rose- 
burgh to Coos Bay, a distance of over sixty miles, con- 
structed under the supervision of Col. F. H. Lamb, Sup't 
W. U. Tel. This line has long been needed, as it opens 
up a part of the country heretofore inaccessible by tele- 
graph. 

Trie election and the actions of certain residents of 
Oregon, politically inclined, have made it lively for the 
telegraph companies. Messrs. Wm. J. Leahy, G. W. 
Thurman and Frank Leahy, of the Portland W. U., 
having the longest straight pull, at one sitting, transmit- 
ing Gov. Grover's decision (pursuant to order from San 
Francisco), containing 13,000 words, between 7:30 P.M., 
and 1:30 A.M., relieving each other at stated intervals — 
when it became necessary to "fill up" — their pipes. 
One or two " rushers " .on the line say, " That's nothing ; 
Tie could do it alone if he had a mind to;" but that's 
what's the matter, he hasn't got the mind." 
' Per orders from Col. Lamb, Dist. Sup't, we notice that 
Mr. C. S. Lamb, chief operator, Portland W. U. office, 
has been appointed Circuit Manager on the lines between 



Portland and Roseburg, and accordingly the boys will 
have to come to time a little more lively. 

Two of our Oregon telegraphers are now making their 
mark at the national Capitol— Messrs. A.F. Wheeler and 
Wm. M. Turner, from Salem and Jacksonville respec- 
tively ; but they don't "reveal" worth a cent. A wag- 
gish Republican at my elbow says, as " Gus." is a cousin 
of the Republican candidate for Vice-President, he ought 
to " open up," tell all he knows, bust Grover, elect Hayes 
and Wheeler, tell the W. U. to go to thunder, and then 
strike his Vice-President cousin lor a position as Minister 
Plenipotentiary to the Cannibal Islands, or somewhere. 
How's that for a scheme ? 

Several more of the boys have been anxious to go and 
tell "what they know about elections ;" but since they 
talk of "jugging" Prest. Orton and the rest that visit 
Washington as telegraph witnesses, our Oregon knights 
have been remarkably reticent on this subject, but de- 
clare Oregon the country of all countries. 

Weather splendid. Trees in foliage yet, and in some 
instances roses are in bloom in the open air. How's that 
compared to " 30 below zero?" Webfoot. 



Telegraphs Well Patronized.— Personal. 

Peoria, III., Jan. 29. 

To the Editor of The Telegrapher. 

Things seem to move along in the even tenor of their 
way. The A. & P. seem to be steadily gaining favor, and are 
doing a big business with their efficient force here. The 
W. IT. don't seem to be losing any of their business 
either. It's a wonder where it all comes from. 

Mr. "Ben" Hamilton, who takes in the night report 
from the W. U. boys in " Ch " in such fine style, for the 
W. U. folks here, paid a flying trip to Chicago Saturday, 
and, in company with his friend Anson, of the Board of 
Trade Telegraph Company at Chicago, visited the W. U. 
main office, and other points of interest there, and re- 
turned here last night. 

Mr. Gus. Carroll, formerly of the Western Union main 
office here, is winning fame, and no doubt soon will win 
fortune also in his new position with Grier & Co., at the 
Union Elevator. He does the telegraphing for them as 
well as their bookkeeping, or a large part of it, and the 
way he can talk of bulls and bears, shorts and longs, May 
corn,. June wheat, January pork, March rye, etc., is as- 
tonishing to the natives. Southey. 



pants of dark blue navy cloth, with light sky blue 
trimmings (which is put on so tastefully, that it does 
not appear gaudy), a half diamond shape piece on the 
shoulder, the point running towards the neck, and a cuff 
to the coat, is all the trimming, except the neat silver 
plated buttons, with the monogram " W. U. T." on their 
face ; the words " Telegraph Messenger " encircling the 
monagram. The pantaloons simply have a light blue 
stripe or cord down the outside of the leg. A belt, with 
pouch attached for carrying the messages in, is fastened 
with a silver mounted buckle, bearing the words "Wes- 
tern Union Telegraph " in full. The caps are lighter 
colored than the suits, with dark blue trimming. They 
are military style, and in the front on a silver plate bear- 
ing the name " Western Union." They are also furnished 
with a storm suit of rubber. The suits were made by 
Messrs. Tuttle, Thompson & Wetmore, 211 and 213 Madi- 
son street, and the caps by Mr. Goebel, 112 Fifth avenue, 
this city. The suits out and out are very neat and pretty, 
and seem to be durable. 

I am informed a number of graduates (?) from the Val- 
entine Telegraph College in Janesville, Wis., are in the 
city in search of situations.- r Occasional. 



Meeting of the Chicago Electrical Society.— The 

Proposed Telegrapher's Ball. — New Uniforms 

of the Western Union Messenger Boys. 

Chicago, III., Jan. 28. 

To the Editor oe The Telegrapher. 

The seventh regular monthly meeting of the Chicago 
Electrical Society was held in the Rooms of Mr. L. B. 
Firman, Supt. American District Telegraph Co., Jan. 18 — 
the second Vice-President, Mr. Crittenton, in the chair. 
There was no music arranged for that evening. Several 
ladies graced the meeting with their presence. I was un- 
fortunate enough not to be present in time for the open- 
ing address of Mr. L. C. Springer, the worthy night mana- 
ger of the W. U. operating force here. He read from 
manuscript, and, if the closing remarks were any criterion 
for the opening part of the discourse, it must have been 
very interesting. I should be glad to lay it before your 
readers if I could overcome Mr. Springer's desire to avoid 
publicity, as I know it would be read with interest. I 
may be able to do so at some future time. After the 
reading of the manuscript, some very good practical re- 
marks were made by Mr. S., and his views, which none 
disputed, explained by blackboard illustrations. Ques- 
tions were asked, which he answered satisfactorily, and 
after the little routine business of the society had been 
gone through with, the meeting adjourned at quite an 
early hour; everyone satisfied that it was the best meet- 
ing of the kind we had ever attended. A large number 
were in attendance. 

Nothing scarcely is talked of but the coming telegraph- 
er's ball, to be given Feb. 12th. The thing was gotten 
under good headway almost at the moment of its incep- 
tion. Much praise is due Ass't Night Manager Kelly of 
the W. U, and Mr. J. M. Clifford, of the signal service, 
for the manner in which they are arranging the details 
for it. It is to their energy more than that of any other 
two men that we are indebted for the speedy recurrence 
of that annual reunion. It has almost became a sterotypod 
question, "Aro you going to the ball?" " Say reception 
or reunion, please?" " Well, are you going to the recep- 
tion, the reunion, the ball or the fandango ?" " Why I of 
course!" It seems everybody is going and going to take 
all their friends. 

On the 22d, the Western Union mossengor boys ap- 
peared in uniform, and certainly, if they were behind tho 
A. & P. boys in getting them, they have roason to be 
proud of them, as thoy claim that they are a perfect fit, 
which is indeed tho case, Tho suit consists of coat and 



Personals. 

Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 24. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

What is the difference between the proprietor of the 
New York Herald, and the agent at the drove yard, N. 
P. R. R. ? The one could have been married, but wouldn't ! 
The other would have been married, but couldn't! 

Mr. W. A. Scott, the general agent and operator D. & 
B. B. R. R. at Trenton junction, had two fingers of his 
left hand mashed last week, by a plank falling on them — 
we are very sorry. 

Mr. H. L. Smith, formerly operator at " G. W.," has 
left us. 

Mr. T. B. Sage, late of Bentley's City Line, and living 
in Camden, N. J., has been appointed operator and assist- 
ant clerk at 407 Walnut street, Philadelphia, doing ser- 
vice for the N. P. R. R. Co. 

Business is rather dull, and we are anxiously awaiting 
the appearance of Spring. Ex-Prof. 



Marriage of a Fortunate and Solid Telegrapher. — 
Personals. 

Wilmington, N. C, Jan. 26. 
To the Editor op The Telegrapher. 

Mr. James A. Yager, formerly operator at Charlottes- 
ville, Va., for the S. and A. Co., better known by the 
title of " Excited," was joined in the holy bands of wed- 
lock to Miss Josie Stonesiffer, of Gordonsville, Va., on 
the 9th of this month, at the residence of the bride's 
father. Entertainments were given nearly every night 
for a week by relatives residing there. Mr. Yager is 
only about twenty years old, but, by constant attention 
to business and economical habits, has saved enough 
money to build and pay for a pretty brick house valued 
at $3,500; and one of the many valuable presents re- 
ceived by the newly married couple was a check for one 
thousand dollars from Mr. Yager's grandfather. Mr. 
Yager now holds a lucrative position with the C. and O. 
R. R. Co. at Gordonsville, Va. This, with his fine house, 
pretty bride and ready cash, enables us to say, Behold 
one more solid man who made his start in the telegraphic 
business! 

Mr. L. W. Sneed, Jf., formerly one of the S. and A. 
operators, but now employed by the C. and O. R. R. Co. 
in West Virginia, was on board the unlucky passenger 
train which jumped the track at Greenbrier River, W. 
Va., and lodged on the ice which covered the river. He 
received very severe injuries, and was taken to Hinton 
and left with his brother. As soon as he is able to travel 
he will come on to Gordonsville, Va., where his parents 
reside. 

Bunting, of Fayetteville, N. C, is happy. There is only 
one drawback to his perfect enjoyment. Every customer 
will call him aside and request the message to be kept 
secret. 

C. S. Bell, of Monroe, N. C, is now in this city. Mr. 
Moore, of Charlotte, N. C, is subbing for him. 

E. T. Krebbo has been appointed to a position in 
Lynchburg, Va., W. U. office. 

Jas. Borden, formerly S. and A. assistant at Atlanta, 
Ga., has been here for somo time. He has secured em- 
ployment at Comack, Ga., now under Superintendent 
Brenner. We wish him success. He is a good operator 
and a lively boy, and deserving of all he gets. 

One Arm. 



Sir Wm. Thomson has repeated and varied the experi- 
ments of Edison, the professor of duplicity and quadru- 
plicity, on induced sparks, from which the latter con- 
cluded upon the existence of an "etheric" force. He 
has obtained these sparks ten millimeteres long, and 
bIiows that they are mado up of attracting electric cur- 
rents of very short duration. 



28 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Feb. 3, 1871 



The Telegrapher 

PBVOTBD TO THE INTERESTS 
OF THE 

TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY. 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1877. 

THE TELEGRAPHER: 

PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY 

At 20 CORTLANDT STREET, Room 5. 



THIETEENTH VOLUME. 



TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

" THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES ....._ FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 
Dominion of Canada. 

INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. 

RATES OP ADVERTISING. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil) each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

OneColumn, '* «■ 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free on application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty per Cent 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any persons sending the names and money for four Sub- 
scribers, at the regular price of subscription, two dollars per 
year, will be entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 
change in their address, must always send their old as 
well as their new address. 

Remittances lor subscnp'ions may be made by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at tUe risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
order or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Communications must be addressed to 



P. O. Box 5503.) 



J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

20 COMTLANDT ST., New York. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISING PAGES, 

PAGE. 

American Fire Alarm and Police Telegraph iv. 

Ashley,J.N •■ ii, iii, vi. 

Bishop Gutta Percha Works »-. n. 

Bliss, George H. & Co. .' .... i. 

Brooks, David ■ ii. 

Buell, M. A., & Sons i. 

Chester, Charles T vi. 

Day, A. G iii. 

Electric R. R. Signal Company • ii. 

Lannert. <fe Decker ii. 

Moore, Joseph & Sons i. 

Merchants' Manufacturing and Construction Co vi. 

N orris, James L vi. 

Partrick & Carter iii. 

Phillips, Eugene F i. 

Protection Life Insurance Co ii. 

Russell Brothers i. 

Shiras, J. O. & Co i: 

The Leclanche Battery Company iii. 

Tillotson, L. G. & Co v. 

Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association v. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Co i, iii, v, vi. 

Wallace & Sons i. 

Watts & Co v. 

Williams, Charles. Jr i. 



The Telegrapher mat be had at the news stand in 
the Receiving Office of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, corner of Broadway and Dey street, where it is 
regularly on sale. 

To the Friends and Patrons of " The Telegrapher." 

Those who have taken and do take an interest in The 
Telegrapher will doubtless be surprised to learn that 
this is the last number which will be issued in the pres- 
ent form and as an independent publication. An arrange- 
ment has been made by which hereafter it will be united 
with the Journal of the Telegraph, and the services of its 
publisher and editor since 1868 will be devoted to the lat- 
ter. The unexpired subscriptions of The Telegrapher 
will be filled by the Journal under the arrangement for 
uniting the two papers. The Journal, as most of our 
readers know, is a sixteen page semi-monthly publica. 



tion, and it is not designed at present to alter this ar- 
rangement. The subscription price is the same, Two 
Dollars per year. The subscribers to The Telegrapher 
will, therefore, receive the Journal for the same length of 
time to which their paid subscriptions to this paper 
would entitle them. 

It is due to those who have aided in sustaining The 
Telegrapher by subscriptions, by labors in its behalf, 
by contributions to its columns, and by advertising pa- 
tronage, as well as to the publisher, that the reasons 
which have led to this step should be explained. In or- 
der that the matter may be fully understood, it is neces- 
sary that its history should be reviewed. 

As is generally known, The Telegrapher was origi- 
nally established by Mr. L. H. Smith as the organ of the 
National Telegraphic Union, the first association of tele- 
graphers in this country. It was received with favor, 
and was edited by Mr. Smith until failing health com- 
pelled him to relinquish it. Mr. P. L. Pope succeeded 
him as editor, but other duties finally so fully occupied 
his time that he also was obliged to resign the position, 
although he has always taken a lively interest in it, and 
has been, for most of the time, a valued contributor to its 
columns. The present publisher succeeded Mr. Pope in 
1868, and the paper has been continuously under his 
charge from that time until the present. 

It should be stated, however, that up to the time we 
took charge of the paper its business had not paid its ex- 
penses. The deficiency, which was sometimes as much 
as a thousand dollars per year, was paid by the Union 
from the funds contributed to its treasury by its members. 
From the first month of the new management, how- 
ever, there was an improvement in the financial condi- 
tion of the paper, and it ceased to be a charge upon the 
treasury of the Union. 

In course of time the Union fell into decadence. It 
was thought by many telegraphers that it was not suffi- 
ciently protective in its character, and a new association, 
styled " The Telegraphers' League," was organized, with 
the purpose of controlling the relations between its mem- 
bers and their employers. This was a secret society, and 
proved so attractive that the National Telegraphic Union 
was neglected and finally ceased to exist. In the mean- 
time, the League entered upon the historical "strike" 
against the Western Union Telegraph Company, which, 
after being vigorously prosecuted for some weeks, ulti- 
mately proved a failure. This strike, although not in 
accordance with our personal judgment at the time, The 
Telegrapher, as the organ of the fraternity, supported 
while it continued. 

About this time the National Telegraphic Union was 
dissolved, and The Telegrapher had to be either dis- 
continued or maintained by its publisher as an individual 
enterprise. Although the prospect was not a very bril- 
liant one, rather than that the paper should stop and the 
fraternity be left without an organ, we concluded to go 
on with it. It has, accordingly, been maintained, with 
more or less success, up to the present time. Immedi- 
ately succeeding the strike the hostility of certain West- 
ern Union officials was excited against the paper and its 
publisher, on account of its energetic support of that 
movement, and a determined effort was made to pro- 
scribe and destroy it. This did not succeed, however, 
and as time passed the animosities then excited have 
gradually died away, and more satisfactory and amicable 
relations have been established. 

The depression in business, which has continued since 
1873, has affected The Telegrapher, as it has all other 
newspapers. In response to our repeated appeals to the 
fraternity for a more general support of the paper there 
comes the plea of " hard times." The advertising patron- 
age has been reduced lrom the same cause, and we have 
very reluctantly come to the conclusion that it would not 
pay us to devote to it the time and labor required to con- 
tinue the publication of an independent weekly telegraphic 
journal. Accordingly, as the best that could be done 
under the circumstances, we have consented to unite The 
Telegrapher and the Journal of the Telegraph, as before 
stated, and devote our time and labor, for the future, 
to the latter. 



We very much regret the necessity for this step, as we 
feel a pride in The Telegrapher, which has been so 
long an object of solicitude, labor, care and pleasure to 
us. It had achieved a character and reputation such as 
no other telegraph journal possessed, and even those who 
have been inimical to it have conceded its honesty, fair" 
ness and ability. 

To those who have cooperated with us in maintaining 
the paper for so many years we are under the deepest 
obligations, and desire to return to them our hearty and 
sincere thanks. It is due, in no small degree, to their 
generous efforts in its behalf that we have succeeded in 
sustaining its publication for so long a time. We are also 1 
under obligation to the many friends who have cheered 
and encouraged us in our arduous task, by their expres- 
sions of approval, and commendation of the manner in 
which the paper has been conducted, and of its value 
and importance as a practical and scientific telegraphic 
journal. 

We have been painfully aware of our shortcomings, and 
of our inability to make it always what it should be, but 
have the satisfaction of knowing, however, that we have 
labored faithfully, and with as much ability as has been 
vouchsafed us, to advance what we have regarded as 
the real interests of telegraphy and the telegraphic fra- 
ternity. We know that in respect to these we have alt 
times differed with sincere friends, and may have been 
mistaken, but in such cases the error has been one of 
judgment, and not of intention. 

It would be ungrateful in us to close this article with- 
out acknowledging the liberal advertising patronage be- 
stowed upon the paper in the past, and returning our 
thanks to our advertisers for their many favors — without- 
which its continued publication, after the National Tele- 
graphic Union ceased to exist, would have been impos- 
sible. 

We have had more and larger experience in publishing; 
a telegraphic journal than any other person in this coun- 
try, and probably in the world, and we have been forced 
to the conclusion that there is not such a demand for an 
independent weekly publication, in the interests of the 
telegraphic fraternity alone, as will warrant any person 
having the requisite ability and experience to undertake 
or continue such an enterprise. The Journal of the Tele- 
graph is otherwise assured of support, its publication not 
depending upon the varying favor of a telegraphic con- 
stituency. 

In our new relation we shall still continue to address 
our friends, though less frequently. We shall still retain 
an interest in the welfare of the fraternity, and believe 
that we may advance those interests not less effectively 
than in the past. The Journal will be made more inter- 
esting to the general telegraphic reader than it has been 
heretofore, and we hope that it will prove so much so that 
when the present subscriptions to The Telegrapher ex- 
pire, our subscribers will be so well satisfied that they 
will desire still to receive it, and continue their pleasant 
relations with us. 

The subscribers to The Telegrapher will receive the 
Journal of the Telegraph for the 15th inst., and thencefor- 
ward regularly, until their subscriptions expire. Those 
who have paid for both papers in advance will have 
their time extended, so as to cover both subscriptions. 



To Advertisers in The Telegrapher. 

We shall, within a day or two, send to our advertisers 
the final bills for amounts due for advertisements in The 
Telegrapher, and they will confer a great favor if they 
will remit promptly. It is necessary that the outstanding 
business of the paper should be settled up speedily. We 
have obligations to discharge which must be met, and. 
which can be done without difficulty promptly if those in- 
debted to us will send what' is due on account of the- 
paper. 

We would also call the attention of advertisers to the un-- 
paralleled advantages which the Journal of the Telegraph 
will offer as an advertising medium. Under the new ar- 
rangement it will have a circulation of 10,000 copies. 
It goes to all classes engaged in telegraphy, and there is 
no other medium by which anything like the same num- 



Feb. 3, 1811] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



fig 



ber of telegraphers can be reached. Almost everybody 
who buys telegraphic apparatus and supplies reads the 
Journal, and the money invested in advertising in its col- 
umns cannot fail to be well expended. 

For advertisements, other than electrical and tele- 
graphic, it will be found advantageous, and we hope it 
will receive more of such miscellaneous advertising 
favors than has been the case with telegraphic journals 

heretofore. 

*-*-* 

Instruments by Mail. 

The Western Electric Manufacturing Company, in order 
to save its customers, located at great distances, the heavy 
express charges usually accruing on the shipment of it's 
celebrated Private Line Instrument, has devised a method 
of packing, suited for the mails, whereby the instrument, 
(without battery), may be transported to any part of the 
United States for eighty cents. 

The instrument is securely packed in two boxes, the 
whole weighing five pounds. Nothing more than a screw- 
driver is required to put it together on arrival at destina- 
tion. (See advertisement.) 



Mr. George W. Hurd, recently subbing for the At- 
lantic and Pacific Company in Boston, Mass., has returned 
to Buffalo on a short visit to old friends. He expects to 
leave for the "West in a few days. 

Mr. P. J. Gettler, formerly operator for the D. & B. 
R. R. Co. at Pennington, N. J., has been appointed agent 
and operator for the same company at Hopewell, N. J. 

Mr. Andrew Swan, late with the Western Union 
Telegraph Company at Princeton, N. J., has been ap- 
pointed agent and operator for the D. & B. R. R. Co. at 
Pennington, N. J., vice Mr. P. J. Gettler, promoted. 



By Cable. 

PROSTRATION OF ENGLISH TELEGRAPH LINES. 

London, Jan. 30. — There was a severe gale in the 
south and southwest of England yesterday and last 
night, accompanied by rain and sleet, which caused con- 
siderable derangement of the telegraph lines. The 
weather now is fair again. 



American District Telegraph in Providence. 

It will be observed that Mr. Bradford, the manager of 
the Western Union telegraph office, proposes to intro- 
duce here the district telegraph system, which is found 
so serviceable in other cities no larger than Providence 
will be presently, if her growth is not throttled by nar- 
row-minded policy. Mr. Bradford proposes to place in 
the residence of each subscriber a signal box, connected 
by telegraph with a central station. By means of this 
box a messenger, a policeman or a fireman can be in- 
stantly summoned at any time of day or night. The ad- 
vantage of this system can readily be recognized, and we 
hope sufficient encouragement will be received to secure 
its permanent establishment in Providence. — Providence 
(R. I.) Journal. 



The Merchants' National Telegraph Company.— 

Injunction Against the Western Union 

Company (granted. 

Judge Ewing, of the Court of Common Please of Al- 
legheny County, Penn., on Saturday, the 27th ult., 
granted an injunction restraining the Western Union 
Telegraph Company from removing or interfering with 
the poles, wires and fixtures of the Merchants' National 
Telegraph Company until further notice. The lines of 
the Merchants' National Company are now in possession 
of the Western Union from Pitisburg to Oil City, Penn. 
under a lease which will expire March 1, 1877. They 
Will then fall into the hands of the Atlantic and Pacific 
Company, under an arrangement recently made, to pre- 
vent which, it is claimed, the Western Union more than 
a week ago attempted to take down the lino, leaving the 
Atlantic and Pacific Company as its only remaining rem- 
edy the power to bring suit for damages. 



Southern and Atlantic Telegraph Company. 

The N. Y. Stock Exchange Committee on stock list has 
admitted the stock of this company to the call. The fol- 
lowing is from the statement submitted: Authorized 
capital stock, 40,000 shares, of $25 each, $1,000,000 
The issue of capital stock is limited to 38,000 shares 



|,000, by the terms of a perpetual lease of the lines 
and property of the company to the Western Union Tele- 
graph Co., dated July 10th, 1876. The rental at the rate 
of 5 per cent, per annum is payable at the office of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company in New York, April 
1st and October 1st, semi-annually, commencing April 
1st, 1877. Capital stock issued, 38,110 shares; less un- 
paid stock called in to be cancelled, 155 shares — capital 
stock outstanding, 37,955 shares. Property owned by 
company : 2,329 miles of pole line, 3,778 miles of wire, 
with all necessary equipment. The lines run from Wash- 
ington, D. O, through the principal cities of the Southern 
States, to New Orleans, La., all other points being- 
reached by connection with the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, under contract dated March 25th, 1875. 
The company has no bonded or floating debt. 



New York Western Union Telegraphic Notes. 

Ask Ed. Cummings to relate some of his moving ac- 
cidents by flood and field. Jules Guthridge's wonderful 
yarns pale beside them. Ed. is modest, and needs en- 
couragement for his meritorious services. 

Great interest is expressed in an imperial photograph 
of our friend Mr. George Cummings, taken by the drama- 
tic portrait painter Mora, of 707 Broadway. All who 
have seen it pronounce it without hesitation a '' speaking- 
likeness," quite equal in vitality and finish to any other 
work executed by this celebrated artist. Those of Mr. 
Cumming's friends who desire a copy and hesitate to ask 
him to incur that expense, may be pleased to learn that 
it has been put on the list of " public pictures " which 
Mr. Mora sells at fifty cents each. We understand a 
plan is on foot to get up a set of photographs of the 
managers, chiefs and operators, either singly or in 
groups, to hang in the operating room, and before any 
decided action is taken in this matter it would, perhaps, 
be well to consult some first class artist, like Mr. Mora, 
about doing the entire work, so as not to have a miscel- 
laneous lot of poor pictures, that would be little better 
than caricatures, instead of, as intended, ornaments to 
the office. 

Mr. Robert McMeney, late of the delivery department 
of 197 Broadway, is at present subbing, at Dry Dock 
office, in the absence of the fair manageress, Miss Mollie 
Britton. 

There is a rumor here to the effect that on the night of 
January 24th a gentleman, more anxious for prospective 
than present gain, actually lent one of the night force 
sufficient filthy lucre to enable the latter to go to the 
ball, so that the first named might have the pleasure of 
working for him. Evidently a quail on toast is not 
worth as much as two in the bush. 

Messrs. Emerson and Koehler are deep in the mysteries 
of Algebraic analysis. 

Steele says we spelled his name wrong in the last 
issue, but considers himself lucky when it isn't printed 
" Steal." 

Why is a theologian like a retired telegrapher ? 

Because he is an ex-pounder. 

Hard on the sledge-hammer men, eh ? 

We learn with extreme sorrow that our genial com- 
panion, Prank B. Rae, is about to follow Horace Gree- 
ley's time-worn advice, and embark for the far, far West. 
Although his first duties in California will be telegraphic, 
it is understood that mining interests bespeak his ulti- 
mate ends. May prosperity and happiness ever stand by 
his side and follow in his footsteps. 

Quite a number of the force have been riding the 
secret society goat lately, and find him unusually frisky. 

Skay — Doubleyou — Bee 1 1 1 



Boston (Mass.) Telegraphic Notes. 

Mr. E. G. Read, of Detroit, Mich., has been appointed 
to the New York duplex night force ; vice the migratory 
Horn. 

It may be a salutary warning to that class of youth 
whose highest ambition finds ils gratification in the ability 
to "salt" lady operators, whose nervousness and inex- 
perience usually render them easy victims to his "rush- 
ing" proclivities, to chronicle here the recent suspension 
of one of this class of operators from this office. In par- 
tial extenuation of his offence, however, it may be said 
that the aggrieved lady is, by no means, the most gentle 
and amiable of her sex ; which does not, of course, ex- 
cuse the offence. 

Mr. J. C. Robinson, of the Eastern Press night force, 
very quietly went and got married a few weeks ago. But 
such things will leak out, and, though a little late, con- 
gratulations are in order. Jim is one of the " best of fell 
lows," and we wish him that long life and happiness 
which that class of men merit. 

Some of the best musical culture in the offico has re- 
cently crystahzed into a quartoLio, with the following 
cast: T. A. Davin, 1st tenor; J. 11. Millikeu, 2d tenor; 
C. D. Stanford, baritone; J. W. Hoogs, bass ; J. C. Wil- 
son singing 1st tenor as Daviu's alternate. 



Of these all are good voices, Mr. Davin having an 
excellent local reputation as a singer. He is a member 
of the Apollo Club, and was long the leading tenor in the 
choir of the Immaculate Conception, the leading Catholic 
church of Boston, prior to the opening of the new Cathe- 
dral. 

Mr. Milliken is a thorough musician and well known 
composer. 

The quartette, with such material, ought to reach a 
point of excellence of which the fraternity here might 
well be proud. 



Albany and Vicinity Telegraphic Notes. 

Senator Harris, of Albany, introduced a bill in the 
Senate on Friday, January 26lh, providing that: 

" It shall be the duty of the telegraph companies to 
" receive from and transmit messages received from 
"rival lines, going to points where such rival lines may 
" not have offices." 

This bill is, of course, aimed at the Western Union Co., 
in the interest of the Atla'ntic and Pacific Co. 

Mr. Ered. H. Lawrence, a well known telegrapher, for- 
merly Supt. of a railroad telegraph in the West, has re- 
signed the position of head clerk in the Del. and Hudson 
Canal Co.'s general ticket office. He is at present lying 
quite sick iu this city. 

Mr. E. M. Arnold has been appointed manager of the 
W. U. office at Glens Palls, N. Y. 

The following is a faithful copy of a message, assent by 
one of the railroad offices north of here. 

" Gels ud Gdzemitc b nf n 6 int he night no one purt 
fitt frite." 

Answers to this puzzle may be sent to the Editor of 
The Telegrapher, whereupon the sender will be enti- 
tled to a brief biographical puff. (Wood cuts must be paid 
for by the subject of the sketch.) 

The 25 cent tariff from here to New York has not, as 
yet, flooded us with business. 



Foreign Telegraphic Notes. 

It is understood that all difficulty with reference to the 
permission of the various governments interested as to 
the increase of rates on the West India and Panama 
Company's system has been removed, and that a new 
and higher tariff will shortly be published. 

The Globe Telegraph and Trust Company announce 
that their interim dividends for the quarter ended Janu- 
ary 18 will be three shillings per share on the preference 
shares, and two shillings per share on the ordinary 
shares, payable February 3. These are the same rates 
for distribution as the corresponding time last year. 

The overland telegraph from Adelaide, South Austra- 
lia, to Western Australia, will, it is anticipated, be com- 
pleted by the end of 1877. 

The storms of the past few weeks have worked great 
havoc on suspended telegraphs throughout the country, 
and the question naturally presses once more, "How are 
our telegraphs to be made more secure ?" In this con- 
nection a special interest attaches to the endeavors now 
being made in various quarters to render the use of sub- 
terranean lines generalfy practicable. — The Telegraphic 
Journal. 

The Eastern Extension, Australasia and China Tele- 
graph Company has submitted a proposal to the Secre- 
tary of State lor the Colonies to lay a duplicate cable be- 
tween Penang and Rangoon. A conference of representa- 
tives of the various Australian colonies is to be held 
shortly, to consider the whole question of telegraphic 
communication between the group and Europe. 

A new telegraph convention was lately concluded be- 
tween Germany and Sweden, and came into operation, 
with the new year. The Swedish Government had ob- 
jected to the word tariff system (for both countries) pro- 
posed by Germany, this being so essentially a departure 
lrom the views of the International Telegraph Convention. 
The new system is, accordingly, of a mixed character. 
A message presented in Sweden^ to be sent to a German 
address will be charged three crowus (about 75 cents) 
lor the first twenty words, with addition of half the tariff 
for ten words in audition. A telegram, on the other 
hand, presented in Germany to be sent to Sweden, is 
charged for according to the word tariff. The sender 
first pays a charge of forty pfennig, without reference to 
the number of the words, and, in addition, twenty pfen- 
nig for each word. 

The Turkish Government has, since the Eastern ques- 
tion attracted tho attention of Europe, taken upon itself 
to exercise a supervision over the messages which are 
handed iu at Constantinople for transmission to Western 
journals. According to the Truth, tho Times, the Daily 
News, and the Standard at onco declined to submit lo 
tins censorship, and have managed, by means of ciphers 
and sending by circuitous routes, to prevent the Turkish 
Government from conveying, without fear of contradic- 
tion, its own impression of passing events in Europe. 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



[Feb. 3, 18?t. 



There were transmitted by the Cuba Submarine Tele- 
graph Company in December, 2,512 messages, estimated 
to produce £2,500. 

The traffic receipts of the Direct Spanish Telegraph 
Company for December, 1876, were £859, against £1,315 
in December, 1875. 

The traffic receipts of the "Western and Brazilian Tele- 
graph Company for December, 1876, were £12,708, 
against £9,712 in December, 1875. 

The traffic receipts of the Great Northern Telegraph 
Company for December, 1876, were 323,256 francs, 
against 375,315 francs in December, 1875. Total receipts 
from the 1st January to 31st December, 1876, 4,895,757 
francs, against 4,155,905 francs in 1875. 

The Anglo-American Telegraph Company, after placing 
£25,000 to the credit of their renewal fund, are to de- 
clare, at their half yearly meeting, to be held this month, 
dividends of 1}£ per cent, on the ordinary consolidated 
stock, and 2^ per cent, on the preferred stock, for the 
half year ended December 31st, 1876; and after paying 
them will carry £221,000 forward to the next account. 
This makes 4^ per cent, as the total annual dividend on 
the consolidated stock for 1876, compared with 5 per 
cent, for each of the two previous years. 



How a Telegraph Operator Lost His Money. 

Fob some time past a young man named Cleveland has 
been boarding on St. Paul's avenue. He was a nice 
young man, was Cleveland, and his promises were 
boundless. Two months ago he concluded that he would 
like to board on trust, and convinced the lady of the 
house that he would settle upon receiving funds expected 
from somewhere generally and nowhere particularly. He 
occupied a room with a young man named Numbers, em- 
ployed as a telegraph operator on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, at the middle office, Bergen Cut, this city. "When 
Mr. Numbers visited his apartments Saturday afternoon, 
he found that his trunk had been rifled and about sixty 
dollars stolen. This, together with the fact that Cleve- 
land had removed his clothing, proved that the nice 
young man had listened to the temptations of the evil 
one. Information was given at the Third Precinct sta- 
tion house, but it is reported that Cleveland took pas- 
sage for Europe on Saturday, and there is no probability 
that he will return to pay his landlady or fellow boarder. 
— The (Jersey City, N. J.) Argus. 



The Proposed Purchase and Management of the 
Telegraph by the Post-office Department. 

The subject of numerous petitions which have been re- 
ceived by Congress, asking the passage of an act authoriz- 
ing the Government to purchase all the telegraph lines in 
the United States and conduct them under tire auspices 
of the Post office Department, was some, weeks ago re- 
ferred to the Postmaster General for his views as to its 
feasibility and utility. It is understood that that officer 
does not intend to go into the subject lurther than to state 
to Congress that he deems the question entirely one for 
legislation ; that if such a measure is accomplished it will 
probably be done under an administration with which he 
does not expect to be connected, and that in his judgment 
it would not be in accordance with the proprieties for 
him, under the circumstances, to express an opinion in re- 
lation to it one way or the other. — The (Washington, D. 

C.) Daily Nation. 

♦-♦-♦ 

The Interests of the Public vs. The Interests of 
Telegraph Investors. 

The only instance in which the interests of the public 
are cared for, to the detriment of the interests of those 
who provide the capital, is that of our own Government, 
which, having at the cost of more than $12,000,000, ob- 
tained possession of all the telegraphs in the country, 
and obsolutely prohibited any person or company from 
carrying on this branch of enterprise in the kingdom, 
gives to the English public the advantage of cheap tele- 
graphy, but the doing the business does not pay their 
working expenses, and entails annually a heavy loss on 
the country. The majority of taxpayers provide, at their 
own cost, the blessings of cheap telegraphy for the min- 
ority. It is scarcely necessary to say that no private 
company could continue to confer this benefit on the 
community unless it had, like the Government, the 
national revenue out of which to make up the losses it 
sustained in the conduct of its business. — The Railway 
News. 



A Honeymoon Telegraph. 

A bon ton marriage was celebrated here, a few weeks 
ago, between the daughter of a well known banker and 
a young merchant. The demands of business were so 
pressing that the bridal trip was a short one, and in a 
very brief time the husband was back in his store attend- 



ing to business. Now, while this man is remarkable 
among his friends for his devotion to the interests of his 
firm, he is likewise known as one of the most love sick 
of " lovers." During his courting experience, bouquets, 
baskets of fruits, perfumed notes, and other soft evidences 
of his gushing love were daily occurrences; and the 
young lady was remarkable for the same line of conduct, 
and their general reputation was that of an uncommonly 
love sick couple. After marriage the lady had no idea of 
losing the society of her hubby so quickly, but as he must 
be at the store, and evidently she could not go there often 
to see him without exciting unpleasant observation, it 
was resolved that a private telegraph wire, working on 
the alphabet system, should communicate between the 
store and the house. The wire was stretched accord- 
ingly, and, as the story runs, there is an incessant signal- 
ing on the instrument for the attention of the young hus- 
band. About one fourth of his time is spent in answering 
the wife's messages, and she tells her friends it is so 
sweet to think she can sit in her own room through the 
day and talk to " dear Charlie " away down town. She 
thinks it is so nice that she uses his time most outrage- 
ously in communicating soft nothings, but Charlie's part- 
ners openly denounce his new honeymoon telegraph as 
an infernal humbug. — Chicago Tribune. 



A Post-office Money Order.— An Intelligent Tele- 
graph Customer. 

The man who imagines the telegraph an express mes- 
senger is still alive, and although he has not recently 
ordered a new pair of boots by telegraph, he has ordered 
the wherewith to get them in this manner: "Send me 
Post-office Order by telegraph for ten dollars. Answer." 
He evidently supposed that the postal telegraph system 
has gone into effect here in this country. 



Congress evidently considers that telegraph customers 
have no rights entitled to respect. 

Telegraph business is dull. 

Sabine has proposed to use the time taken by a con- 
ductor to discharge itself, or to pass from one potential to 
another, through a circuit of known resistance, as a unit 
for measuring very small intervals of time. 



flew Patents. 

t?&~ Official Copies of any" U. S. Patent issued since July 
1st, 1871, including drawings, specifications, and claims in full, 
sent free to any address for 25 cents each. Address F. L. Pope, 
Elizabeth, N. J. 

For the week ended Dec. 26, 1876, and bearing that date. 

185,622.— Electro-Vapor Baths.— G. W. Brown, Kockford, 
111. [Filed September 28, 1870.] 

1. In an electro-vapor apparatus, the metallic seat stand F, to 
which the battery is attached, the screw seat c, vertically ad- 
justable therein, and having a plate cl upon its top, whereby 
the seat can be raised or lowered without breaking the current, 
substantially as set forth. 

2. The adjustable foot stool, with metallic plates on the sides 
and ends, each connected by continuous metallic wire, substan- 
tially as described. 

3. The back strip, with a figured scale for adjusting the seat, 
and grooved edges to hold the spinal electrode in place, sub- 
stantially as described. 

4. The adjustable spinal electrode, with its peculiar construc- 
tion for the easy removal and replacing of the sponge, in com- 
bination with the rod, with a non-conductor on the top of the 
same, extending upward, admitting of the raising and lowering 
of the electrode by the operator. 

5. The head rest H, made adjustable vertically and horizon- 
tally, and so connected with the battery as to be made positive 
or negative, electric or non-electric, at the will of the operator, 
substantially as specified. 

6. The combination, in an electro-vapor bath apparatus, of 
the adjustable head rest H, vertically adjustable spinal electrode 
I, electric seat F, electric footstool E, and base A, having a 
metallic covering a, whereby electricity can be applied to all 
parts of the body, substantially as shown. 



Quotations of Telegraph Stocks at N. Y. Stock 
Exchange, 

Showing Lowest and Highest Prices each day during week. 

Reported for The Telegrapher by Messrs. Hotchkiss & 

Burnham, Commission Stock Brokers, No. 36 Broad street. 



Jany. 


Western 
Union. 


Atl. and 
Pac 


Amer. 
Dist. 


Gold and 
Stock. 


25 
26 


76% ... 77% 
76% ... 77% 
75% ... 77% 
75J4 ... 76% 
75% ... 76% 
75^ ... 77 


16J6 ... 16M 


Sid. Asked. 


Bid. Asked 


27 

29 
ft 
30 

31 


16 ... 16^ 
15M ... 16/ 2 







Gold and Stock and American District, nothing doing. 



A lady, a short time back, presented a telegram at a 
Loudon Post-office. The message was enclosed in an 
envelope. On receiving it the official at once proceeded 
to open it. " What are you about?" exclaimed the lady. 
The clerk explained that he could not send a message 
without first seeing it. " Then," observed the lady, 
angrily, " do you suppose I'm going to let you read my 
private affairs ? I won't send it at all I" And forthwith 
she flounced out of the office in disgust. 



Died. 

Britton.— At his mother's residence, Trenton, N. J., of con- 
sumption, Tuesday evening, January 30, 1877, Mr. D. D. Brit- 
ton, late operator for the D. and B. R. E. Co. 

He was loved and respected by all the operators of that road, 
and although ill health obliged him to resign his position a 
month or two previous to his death, " Bn " was still remem- 
bered. 

Thou hast left us, dear friend, 
Having reached thy journey's end ; 
May thy name be remembered evermore, 
And may we meet you on the other shore. 

Ex. Prof. 



THE DIRECT UNITED STATES 
CABLE COMPANY (LIMITED). 



Superintendent's Office, ) 

New York, Jan. 26, 1877. J 

Indo-European Cable Eestored. — Communication by the 
Indo-European line is restored. 

GEO. G. WARD, SupH. 



O PECIAL NOTICE. 



We will forward the following of our TELEGRAPH IN- 
STRUMENTS by mail at the prices named : 



Name of Instrument. 



Private Line Instrument, without 

Battery 

Patent Pocket Relay 

Putt's Mechanical Instrument 

No. 3 Sounder, reduced from $6 to... 

No. 1 Sounder 

Lewis' Legless Key 



•Ejjo 


HI 

goo 


B £ <D 


•Soa 
1-3 g 




O) -O 

So 


$8 00 


20% 


$6 40 


18 00 


20% 


14 40 


5 00 


20% 


4 00 


5 00 


20% 


4 00 


7 50 


10% 


6 75 


5 00 


10% 


4 50 



Qj <S OB 



$7 20 
14 50 
4 60 
4 40 
7 25 
4 75 



The first four of the Instruments named above are the only 
ones on which we make a 20 per cent, discount, and this is made 
only when the money is sent with order. 

WESTERN ELECTRIC M'F'G CO., 

220 Kinzie St.,Chicago. 



■LECTRIC PEN AND DUPLICATING 

PRESS. 




SIMPLE IN OPERATION, 

PERFECT IN WORK, 

UNRIVALLED IN SPEED. 

PROM 1,000 TO 7,000 COPIES CAN BE MADE BY THIS 
PROCESS PROM A SINGLE WRITTEN STENCIL. 

It is the cheapest method of producing Circulars, Price Lists, 
Market Quotations, Pamphlets, Catalogues, Lawyers' Briefs, 
Contracts, Abstracts, Legal Documents, Manifests, Time 
Tables, Freight Tariffs, Labels, Letter and Bill Heads, Maps, 
Architectural and Mechanical Drawings, Bills of Fare, Music, 
Insurance Policies, Press Reports, Bankers' Forms, etc. 

2,000 of these instruments are in use among Railroad and 
Telegraph Companies and prominent Business Firms. 

Send for samples of work and description. 

GEO. H. BLISS, 

GENERAL MANAGER, 

220 to 232 Kinzie Street, Chicago, III. 

E. D. GILLILAND, General Eastern Agent, 

20 New Church street, New York. 

W. F. WHEELER, General Western Agent, 

142 La Salle street, Chicago, 111. 

D. H. LOUDERBACK, Agent, 

1202 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Responsible and Energetic Agents wanted to introduce the 
Apparatus. 



Feb. 3, 1811.] 



THE TELEGRAPHER. 



m 



TTTESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
220 KINZIE STREET, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

Cash Capital and Surplus, $200,000 00. 

MANUFACTURERS AND JOBBERS 
OF 

ELECTRICAL 

AND 

TelepanMc Instruments and Supplies. 

ANSON STAGER, 

President. 

ENOS M. BARTON, 

Secretary 
ELISHA GRAY,! 

Electrician. 

GEO. H. BLISS, 

General Agent. 

BOSTON AGENCY, 

267 Washington Street. 

PHILADELPHIA AGENCY, 

120'& Chestnut Street. 

CINCINNATI AGENCY, 

166 Race Street. 



T 



HE TELEGRAPHER. 



A JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. 
DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS 

01" THE 

Telegraphic Fraternity and the Advancement 
of Electrical Science and the 

Telegraphic Art. 
Ptiblished every Saturday 

AT 

No. 20 CORTLANDT STREET (ROOM 5), 

NEW YORK. 



A. 



G. DAY, 

MANUFACTURER OF 



KERITE INSULATED TELEGRAPH WIRE 
AND CABLES. 






mm 

liir 

1 ;.. a 



ill 






rpHE LECLANCHE 
-*- BATTERY. 

THE WORLD RENOWNED 

Open Circuit Battery 

SO ACIDS ! 

SO SULPHATE OF COPPER ! 

DOES SOT FREEZE ? 

Will last from six months to several 
years Without Renewal. 



THIRTEENTH VOLUME. 

The THIRTEENTH VOLUME of THE TELEGRAPHER 
will commence with the number for JANUARY 6, 1877. 

THE TELEGRAPHER 

is notable as the only telegraphic journal in the world which 
has been permanently established and maintained as an entirely 

INDEPENDENT TELEGRAPHIC NEWSPAPER, 

relying exclusively upon the patronage received for its support. 
It is, and has been from the commencement of its publica- 
tion, the recognized representative of the PRACTICAL TELE- 
GRAPHERS, and not conducted in the interest of any 
TELEOBAPH COMPANY, CLIQUE OB 
COMBINATION. 

As such it has been and will be honestly continued, so long as it 
shall receive the confidence and support of those whose interests 
it maintains, and whose cause it supports and advocates. 

It will enter upon its THIRTEENTH VOLUME with con- 
tinued excellent prospects, and its publisher confidently appeals 
to the TELEGRAPHIC FRATERNITY of the whole country 
to make it even more BRILLIANTLY SUCCESSFUL than it 
has been heretofore. 

Its columns are at all times open to the freest and fullest dis- 
cussion of all questions of interest and importance to the Fra- 
ternity, or the Telegraphic Art and Electrical Science in con- 
nection therewith. 

As heretofore, no labor, time or expense, warranted by the 
patronage received, will be spared to improve its character and 
add to its interest, and to sustain its reputation as the only 

FIRST CLASS INDEPENDENT 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC JOURNAL 

UPON THE 

AMERICAN CONTINENT. 

The popular features of the paper, which have heretofore 
secured to it the favor and approbation of those who are inter- 
ested in Electrical Science and Practical Telegraphy, will be re- 
tained, and new features introduced from time to time which 
will maintain its character and reputation, and render it more 
valuable and desirable to those for whom it is prepared. 

While due attention will continue to be paid to Scientific Elec- 
trical Developments and Practical Improvements in Telegraphy, 
it will be made popular and interesting by Sketches, Tales and 
Original Articles, which will be furnished exclusively for its 
columns by able writers. 

One specialty which renders it valuable is the complete sum- 
mary of information which is given in its columns relative to 
telegraphs, telegraphic progress, and telegraphers throughout 
the world, and which makes each volume a 

FULL AND ACCURATE HISTORY 
of the telegraphs for the year. 



MANUFACTORY, 
SEYMOUR, CONN. 

OFFICE, 
120 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



IS ESPECIALLY ADAPTED to Electric Bells, Hotel and 
House Annunciators, Burglar Alarms, Medical Apparatus and 
all kinds of Open Circuit Work. Address, 

LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 

No. 40 West 18th Street, or 
L. G. TILLOTSON"& CO., Sole Agents, 

8 Dey Street, New York. 



rpHE 



HIGHEST AND ONLY PREMIUM 
AWARDED. 




PARTRICK & CARTER, 
38 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 

have received the highest and only Premium and Diploma 
awarded at the late Centennial Exhibition, upon their Cham- 
mom Learner's Apparatus, Giant Sounders and all Morse 
Telegraph Instruments. 

These goods are warranted better than the best and cheaper 
than the cheapest. 

Every description of Telegraph and Electrical Instruments 
and supplies constantly on hand. 

SEND FOR PRICE US.TS, CARDS AND CIRCULARS. 
Agent for California, 

GEO. POMEROY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL, 



Terms of Subscription. 

Invariably in Advance. 

ONE COPY, ONE YEAR.... ....TWO DOLLARS 

SIX MONTHS ONE DOLLAR 

THREE MONTHS FIFTY CENTS 

SINGLE COPIES FIVE CENTS 

which includes Postage to Subscribers in the United States and 
Dominion of Canada. 
Subscriptions may commence at any time. 

Rates of Advertising. 

One Square (twelve lines Nonpareil), each insertion $1 00 

One Quarter Column, each insertion 2 50 

One Half Column, " " 4 00 

One Column, " " 8 00 

A Liberal Discount on Advertisements continued for four or 
more insertions, but no Advertisement inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

Specimen Copies will be forwarded free On application. 

Telegraphers and others are desired to act as Agents in ob- 
taining subscriptions, and will be allowed Twenty per Cent. 
Commissions in lieu of Premiums or Club rates upon the amount 
of such subscriptions, which may be deducted from remittances 
when made. 

Any person sending the names and money for pour Sub- 
scribers at the regular price of subscription, $2 per year, will lie 
entitled to receive an extra copy free. 

Subscribers changing their residences, and desiring a 

CHANGE IN TIIKIR ADDRESS, MUST ALWAYS SEND THEIR OLD 
AS WELL AS THEIR NEW ADDRESS. 

Remittances for subscriptions may be made, by mail, by post- 
office order or registered letter, at tire risk of the Publisher, but 
no responsibility will be assumed for money sent without such 
precaution. On remittances of not less than five dollars the 
oidcr or registration fee may be deducted from the amount. 

Advertisements are solicited, and will be inserted at reason- 
able rules; but.no Advertisement will be Inserted for less than 
ONE DOLLAR. 

All communications relating to or intended for THE TELE- 
GRAPHER must be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, Publisher, 

(P, 0, Box 5503), NEW YORK, 



The Di-electrical properties of Kerite have been tested in 
every conceivable manner during the last few years, and its 
superiority over all other kinds of insulation fully demon- 
strated. 

Its durability has been proved by constant exposure to the 
sun and atmospheric changes of the thousands of miles of 
covered wire in use by the Fire Alarm and Telegraph Com- 
panies in many of the principal cities of the country. It has 
been largely used in the City of New York, under all condi- 
tions and exposures, lor the last nine years, and at the pres- 
ent time its resistance is as great as when first exposed. 

The facts are now fully established that Kerite is not inju 
riously affected by the extremes of heat and cold experienced 
in any climate, nor by length of exposure in the atmosphere . 
It will endure long continued heat below 200° Fahrenheit, 
while for short intervals it may be subjected to 250 or 300° ; 
and it may be safely immersed in boiling water. 

The action of water, salt or fresh, not only protects all its 
qualities, but very much improves its insulation. 
It is also unchanged by being placed in the ground. 
Any corrosive elements in the earth do not act upon it, nor 
is it injured by the roots of plants, which soon destroy gutta 
percha. 

Acids act very slowly upon it, and then only to the extent of 
oxydizing the surface. 

It will bear exposure to hot, strong solutions of alkalies with 
out injury. 

Mineral oils and illuminating gas, so far as known, do not 
produce any serious effect upon it. 
Exposure in a city gas pipe has not injured it. 
Thorough experiments have shown that it does not suffer in- 
jury by the most destructive insects of land or water. 

Samples of the core or insulated conductor of Kerite cables 
have for a long period been laid in the Caribbean Sea, yet the 
" teredo," which would have speedily destroyed other cables 
thus exposed, has left these entirely unharmed. And experi- 
mental lines on the Isthmus have been equally exempt from the 
ravages of the white ant, which destroys wood telegraph poles 
so rapidly that iron poles have been substituted. 

The same qualities which render it so indestructible by all 
corrosive agents, insure its durability for an indefinite period in 
all climates. 

Neither gutta percha nor vulcanized india rubber will bear 
storage in tropical climates without rapid deterioration, and 
undergoing chemical changes, -which destroy their essential 
qualities, while under the same conditions the Kerite insulation 
is not changed in any respect. 

The Kerite covered wire is used almost exclusively by the 
United States Navy Department in the torpedo experiments 
which have been going on during the past three years. Prof. 
Farmer, the Government Instructor, says of it : " It fulfils the 
conditions required in the torpedo service better than any insu 
lator with which I am acquainted." 

John L. Lay, Esq., the inventor of the famous torpedo bearing 
his name, says that he thoroughly tested the Kerite cable in this 
country and also in Egypt, and finds it preferable to rubber or 
gutta percha, heat not affecting it, and so far as his experience 
goes, it is proof against the " teredo.'' 

Messrs. Gamewell & Co., proprietors of the American Fire 
Alarm and Police Telegraph, have used the Kerite wire for ten 
years. They say : " We have placed it in use in some sixty 
cities, extending from Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the north to 
New Orleans and Sail Francisco on the south and west, embrac- 
ing every variety of climate, and it has proved itself to be, under 
all circumstances, the most reliable and indestructible insulator 
known to us for telegraphic purposes." 

The experience of other parties using the Kerite coated wire 
overhead, underground and under water, is almost precisely 
similar, and is well summarized in the following opinion of 
George B. Prescott, Esq., the Electrician of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. Mr. Prescott says : " In September, 1809 
we placed some of your Kerite wire, unprotected by any cover- 
ing whatever, in the tunnel under the river in Chicago, and 
have Since continued its use in that exposed situation with the 
most, gratifying results. A portion of the tunnel is very wet, 
aled with lime, constantly drips upon the wires', 
lortions they are kept alternately wet and dry 
be one of the severest tests that any in 
subjected to ; and 
ve conditions, the 
leterioration. An 
insulating covering of india rubber or gutta percha under a like 

exposure, would have been destroyed in much less time." 



and water, 

while in oth 

which is well known t< 

Sulating material of an organic nature can Ik 

yet, after five years' exposure, under the alu 

Kerite covering shows no Bigns of decay or 



For further particulars address 



A. G. DAY, 



|SJO Broadway, JVew Y<ir£, 



IV 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[Feb. 3, 1877. 



A 



MERICAN FIRE ALARM AND 
POLICE TELEGRAPH. 



GAME WELL & CO., Proprietors, 

62 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

J. W. STOVER, 

General Agent and Superintendent 

L, B. FIRMAN, Chicago, 111., 

General Agent for the West and North- West 
TELEGRAPH SUPPLY AND MANUF'G 00., Cleveland, Ohio, 

Special Agents for the Middle States, 
J. R. DOWELL, Richmond, Va.. 

Special Agent for Virginia and North Carolina 
J, A. BRENNER, Augusta, Ga., 

Special Agent for Georgia and South Carolina, 
L. M. MONROE, New Canaan, Conn,, 

Special Agent for New England 
ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CO, 
San Eranclsco, Cal., 
Special Agents for California, Oregon and Nevada 

THIS SYSTEM OF 

FIRE ALARM & POLICE TELEGRAPH 

WITH A CENTRAL OFFICE, 

OB 

UPON THE AUTOMAT IC PLAN, 

is now In operation in the following Cities, to which referenoels 

made tor evidence of its great 

SUPERIORITY, VALUE 

AND 

UNIFORM RELIABILITY. 



Albany, N. Y., 
Alleghany, Pa., 
Boston, Mass. s 
Bridgeport, Conn., 
Buffalo, N. Y., 
Baltimore, Md., 
Chicago, 111., 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Charlestown, Mass., 
Chelsea, Mass., 
Covington, Ky., 
Detroit, Mich. 
Dayton, Ohio, 
Elizabeth, N. J., 
Fall River, Mass., 
Fitchburg, Mass., 
Fond du Lac, Wis., 
Harrisburg, Penn., 
Hartford, Conn., 
Halifax, N. S., 
Hyde Park, 111., 
Indianapolis, Ind., 
Jersey City, N. J., 
Kalamazoo, Mich., 
Lansingburg, N. Y., 
Louisville, E.y., 
Lowell, Mass., 
Lawrence, Mass., 
Lynn, Mass., 
Manchester, N. H., 
Mobile, Ala., 
Montreal, Canada, 
Milwaukee. Wis., 
Minneopolis, Minn., 
New York City, 



New Orleans, La., 
New Bedford, Mass., 
New Haven, Conn., 
Newark, N. J., 
Nashville, Tenn., 
Newton, Mass., 
Newport, Ky., 
Omaha, Neb., 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
Pittsburg, Pa., 
Portland, Maine, 
Peoria, 111., 
Providence, R. I., 
Portland, Oregon. 
Paterson, N. J., 
Pawtucket, R. I., 
Quebec, L. 0., 
Reading, Pa., 
Rochester, N. Y., 
Richmond, Va., 
St. Louis, Mo., , 
St. John, N. B., 
St. Paul, Minn., 
Springfield, Mass., 
San Francisco, Cal., 
Savannah, Ga. , 
Syracuse, N. Y., 
Somerville, Miss. , 
Terre Haute, Ind., 
Troy, N. ~Z., 
Taunton, Mass., 
Toledo, Ohio, 
Toronto, Canada, 
West Roxbury, Mass. 
Washington, D. 0., 
Worcester, Mass. 



The Distinctive Features of these Systems of 

Fire Alarm and Police Telegraphs 

ABE, 

First— The Automatic Repeater, through which the 
apparatus may be distributed in a combination of circuits, and 
the entire system successfully worked, without the constant per- 
sonal attention of either operators or watchmen. 

Second The Automatic Sigu.u.1 Boxes. 

Third— Tlie Electro-Mechanical Bell Strikers, 
adapted to produce the full tone of the largest church or tower 

belli). 
Fourth— The Electro-Mechanical Gong Striker, 

for hose and engine houses, by means of which the location of 

the fice is instantaneously communicated to the members of 

eaoh Are company. 

These Features combined form the 

Only PERFECT, COMPLETE and RELIABLE System 

OF 

FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH 
IN THE WORLD. 
It is a sufficient vindication of the claims wkioh are made by 
the Proprietors of these systems of 



FSFIE ALARM 

AND 

POLICE TELEGRAPHS, 

that they have sustained the test of more than twenty years of 
practical use, and that the efforts which have been repeatedly 
made to supplant them by other inventions have 

COMPLETELY FAILED; 
the few instano es in which municipalities have been induced to 
adopt other systems having demonstrated their insufficiency 
and unreliability, and resulted in their abandonment, and sub- 
stitution therefor of the 

AMERICAN FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPH. 

Messrs. GAMEWELL & CO. are the owners of the 
original FARMER <& CHANNING PATENTS, one of the most 
important of which hasjust been extended for seven years, and 
during the past seventeen years have spared no expense or effort 
to secure Improvements, and the Systems are now covered by 
MORE THAN TWENTY PATENTS. 

The most important Improvement which the Proprietors have 
adopted and introduced is the 

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM. 

the introduction and operation of which involves so little ex. 
pense. compared to the benefit which it confers, that even small 
communities can profitably adopt and maintain it. 
The American System of 

FIRE ALAEM AND POLICE TELEGRAPHS 

has met with the universal approbation and commendation of 
the 

People, Municipal Authorities, 

AHD TH» 

PRESS 

throughout the UNITED STATES and CANADA. 

NO EFFORT, TROUBLE OR EXPENSE 
is spared by the Proprietors to obtain and secure ANY POS- 
SIBLE IMPROVEMENT which shall increase the 
EFFICIENCY, 

RELIABILITY and 

ECONOMY 
of the system. They intend that, as far as possible, it shall be 

ABSOLUTELY PERFECT 

The amount of property which has been saved from destruc- 
tion, and the number of lives which have been preserved 
through the genera) adoption of this system, throughout the 
UNITED STATES snd the DOMINION of CANADA, 

CANNOT EASILY BE ESTIMATED, 

but that, in every community where it has been introduced for 
any considerable length of time, they have been enormous, ihess 

CAN BE NO QUESTION. 



s 



END FOR CATALOGUE. 



The cooperation of TELEGRAPHERS in securing its in- 
troduction into their localities is cordially invited, and 
their efforts will be duly appreciated and 
compensated. 



Any information desired in regard to the above 
system will be cheerfully and promptly furnished 
upon application at the office. 



A pamphlet, setting forth more fully Its advantages and 
superiority, has been printed, and will be supplied to Municipal 
Authoriuas and others interested in Fire Alarm and Police Tele- 
graph?, upon application aa above, 



LOW PRICES AND 20 PEE, CENT. DISCOUNT. 



WATTS AND COMPANY, 

BALTIMORE, MD., 

Manufacturers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Telegraph and Electrical Material 

AND 

SUPPLIES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 

including first class Morse Instruments of all styles and designs. 

Best LINE WIRE in the country. Office and Magnet Wire. 

Insulators of every kind, including our NEW PORCELAIN 
INSULATORS. 

Our beautiful and effective MAIN LINE SOUNDER is still the 
best in use. Price (key on base), $22.50. 

Our POCKET RELAY is the best and cheapest made. Price 
$16.00. 

We keep in Stock a full line of American District material at 
prices that defy competition. Our new 

SELF-STARTING AND STOPPING REGISTER. 

BATTERY MATERIAL of every kind, including our cele- 
brated 

BALTIMORE BATTERY, 

Electric Bells, Annur.ciators for Hotels and Private Houses, 
Burglar Alarms. 

LEARNERS' INSTRUMENTS, 

FOR SCHOOLS, SHORT LINES AND STUDENTS 

No. 1. Outfit complete $8.00 

Key and Sounder 6.75 

Battery, per cell 1.25 

No. 2. Outfit complete 6.00 

Key and Sounder 5 00 

Battery, per cell 1.00 

When complete set purchased, Wire and Chemicals and Book 
of Instructions are included. ' Special quotations for large 
Quantities or schools. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, 

just published. Contains useful knowledge for telegraphers 
and those who contemplate purchasing, with a reduced price list 
from which we will, till further notice, allow a discount of 20 
per cent, on instruments when sent C. O. D., or when cash ac- 
companies order. 



THE TELEGRAPHERS' MUTUAL 
BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

Established October 22, 1867. 

ITS OBJECT IS TO AID THE FAMILIES OF 
DECEASED MEMBERS, 

BY PAYMENT TO THE HEIRS OF $1,000. 

Any person who is, or who has been employed in telegraph 
service in any capacity, may become a member of this Associa- 
tion upon giving proof of good health and habits and payment 
of the required fees. 

INITIATION FEE, $2.00. 

Payments required : One Dollar upon the Death 

of each Member. 

Application blanks, copies of the By-Laws and other informa- 
tion furnished upon application to the Secretary, or any of the 
Agents. 

The attention of former members of the Association is called 
to the following resolution, passed at the last Annual Meeting 
of the Association : 

Resolved, That delinquent member's shall be eligible to renewed 
membership on payment of back dues to an amount not exceed- 
ing five dollars, and without further initiation fee. 

W. HOLMES, Secretary. J. D. REID, Treasurer. 

Box 3175, New York. 

N. B.— Members will please note change in number of Post 
Office Box. 

Photographs and Stereoscopic Views of the Operating Room 
and Switch of the New York Office have been taken and will be 
sold for the benefit of the Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Asso- 
ciation. 

REDUCED PRICES AS FOLLOWS : 

Operating Room, 10x14 inches $1 25 

8x10 " 75 

Switch, 8x10 75 

Stereoscopic Views. 

Operating Room 35 

Switch 35 

Address orders for any of the above to the Secretary of the 
Association. 




Vol. XIII. 



Mew York, Saturday, February 3, 1877. 



Whole JVo. 651 



nv yr a. buell & sons, 

Manufacturers and Dealers in all kinds of 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES, 
LITTLE MOMTOR SOUNDER IMPROVED. 

Also, the Best Learners' Outfit ever made, now offered 
at a Great Reduction. 

Send Stamp for Illustrated Catalogue. 

76 Frankfort Street, 

Cleveland, 0. 



XJUSSELLS' AMERICAN 

STEAM PRINTING HOUSE, 

17, 19, 21, 23 ROSE STREET, near FRANKFORT, 

NEW YORK, 

EXECUTES ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF 

BOOK, JOB AND OOMMEROIAC PKINTIM. 



TELEGRAPH PRINTING A SPECIALTY. 



THE WESTERN ELECTRIC 
MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

EASTERN AGENCY, 

1202 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. D. H. LOTJDERBACK has been appointed Eastern 
Agent of the 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 
Orders for all descriptions of Electrical and Telegraphic Ap- 
paratus and Supplies promptly filled as above at home prices. J 



/CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr. 

^"^ (Established 1856). 



TELEGRAPH & ELECTRICAL 
INSTRUMENTS, 

BATTERIES, WIRES AND SUPPLIES 
OF ALL KINDS, 

109 COURT STREET, BOSTON, MASS?" 
PRICES AS LOW AS THE LOWEST. 



E 



UGENE F. PHILLIPS, 

67 STEWAET STREET, 

PROVIDENCE, R. I., 
Manufacturer of 

Patent Finished Insulated Wire, Patent Rubber 

Covered Wire, Magnet Wire, Patent 

Electric Cordage, Cables, etc. 

I claim to furnish the best Braided Wire in the Market, and I 
believe it is acknowledged as such by all large Telegraph Com- 
panies and Telegraph Supply Dealers. 

My Wires were awarded the first premium at the Cincinnati 
Exposition of 1874, both for best " Office " and best "Insulated 
Line Wires." 

Ihese Wires are furnished in any desirable color or plaids. 

My Rubber Covered Wire will not crack, and is not affected 
by ordinary extremes of heat or cold. The rubber covering is 
of uniform thickness, and the wire will be found in the exact 
centre — a result not heretofore produced. 

I also make cables of any number of conductors at the regular 
price for a single wire. 

With new and improved machinery I feel satisfied that I can 
furnish magnet Wires as good as any to be found in the market. 

All Wire used by me is made to my special order, and is the 
best that can be procured in the market. 

I could give a long list of testimonials, but depend on the 
merits of the Wire for patronage. 

>8SF" Please send for sample card and price list. 

These Wires can be had at my prices of 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., New York and PLiladelphla 

CHARLES T. CHESTER, New York. 

PARTRICK & CARTER, Philadelphia. 

CHARLES WILLIAMS, Jr., Boston. 

JEROME REDDING & CO., Boston. 

THOS. HALL, Boston. 

H. D. ROGERS & CO., Cincinnati. 

GEO. 0. MAYNARD, Washington. 

WATTS & CO., Baltimore. 



JOSEPH MOORE & SONS, 

(Established 1820,) 
535 & 537 CHINA STREET^ 

(Below Green St.,) PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

INSULATED WIRES. 

OFFICE WIRE— Plain, Braided, Prepared, &c 
INSTRUMENT WIRE— Ootton and Silk Covered, &o. 
FLEXIBLE CORDS, all kinds, &c, &o. 
FINE RESISTANCE WIRES. 



We warrant all Wire to be of the highest oonduotlvity, tested 
by our Galvanometer, which oomparee with the teats of the 
highest authority in this country. 



TT^ESTERN ELECTRIC 
* * MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

FURNISH ALL DESCRIPTIONS OP 

Oopper Office and Magnet Wire, 

OF OUR OWN MANUFACTURE, 

WITH 

EYEEY VARIETY OF INSULATION, 

FINE RESISTANCE WIRE and DOUBLE and 
SINGLE CONNECTING CORD. 

Western Electric Manufacturing Company 

CHICAGO. 
f^\ EO. H. BLISS & CO., 

220 Kinzie Street, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Telegraph instruments and supplies in great variety, of the 
best patterns and highest finish. 

Prices always as low as the lowest. 
Send for Price List. 

GEO. H. BLISS & CO. 



TpSTABLISHED 1866. 



CINCINNATI 

ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC WORKS, 

J. 0. SHIRAS & CO., 

(Successors to E. T. & Jas. F. Gilliland & Co.,) 

No. 166 Race Street, near Fourth, 

Agents for Western Electric Manufacturing Company. 
Our stock is complete. We sell at bottom figures. 

WALLACE & SONS, 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

BRASS, COPPER & GERMAN SILVER WIRE. 

Also, BRASS, OOPPER and GERMAN SILVER, 
In the Roll and Sheet. 
We make the manufacture of Eleotrio Wire a specialty— 
especially the finer sizes of Oopper for conduction, and German 
Silver for resistance purposes — guaranteeing the oonduotlvlty of 
the same In every Instance to be superior to that of any other 
manufacturer in the market. 

WAREHOUSE, 

89 Chambers Street, N. Y ^ 

MANUFACTORY, 

A n mo ui a , Conn. 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[Feb. 3, 1871. 



s 



PECIAL 




■■,"""'-' n l! 

[ABOVE CUT HALF SIZE.] 

A Lottd, Cleak, "Free Worker," agreeable to the ear; 
■well made, finelv finished, and especially adapted for Kailroar" 
Commercial offices and Short Lines. 





(Cut One-third Size), for Short Lines and Learners. 

ssssar^ 'asi paragon, $5.00 

Extra Resistance for line from one to ten miles, $1.00. 
20 per cent, discount from, above for remittance with order. 
1 Cell No. 1 Callaud,- Manual, Office wire and Chemicals, for 
Reamers Outfit, - - - - $1 75. 

LMEiT & DEGKER, 

Mf'g Electricians, 

CLEVELAND, O. 



hj 



ELECTRICAL AND TELEGRAPHIC 
WORKS FOR SALE." 



B 



ROOKS' PATENT TELEGRAPH INSU- 
LATOR WORKS, 



AND AGENCY FOB THE SALE OF 



SIEMENS' UNIVERSAL GALVANOMETER 

Resistance Coils, Submarine Cables, 

AND EVEBY VABIETY OF 

Electro-Metrical Apparatus Manufactured by Siemens Bros. 
THE ADVANTAGES OF THIS If SULATION ARE : 

Fibst.— It is not affected by rain or humid atmosphere. 

Second.— Strength. They arc not broken or injured by mis- 
siles, or by any strain which the wire will bear. 

Third. — When this Insulation is used, a Number 10 or Num- 
ber 11 wire conductor answers all the purpose of a Number 8 
wire with ordinary Insulators, and can be worked much farther 
and better in unfavorable weather. With these lighter conduc- 
tors, from eighteen to twenty posts to the mile are ample, and 
make a much more durable structure or one less liable to inter- 
ruption, at less than half the expense of an ordinary line of 
Number 8 wire, with thirty posts to the mile, with other Insu- 
lators. 

DAVID BS00KS, Proprietor, 
22 SOUTH TWENTY-FIRST ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



E L 



ECTRIC RAILROAD SIGNALS. 



ELECTRICITY: ITS THEORY, SOURCES AND 

APPLICATIONS. 

By JOHN J. SPEAGUE, M. S. T. E. 

Price $3. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL MEASURE- 
MENT. 
By Db. F. EOHLRAUSCH. 

This is a work which every electrician, engaged in making care- 
ful and accurate meaaurements, should have on his table for 
reference. Price, $2.50. 

A MANUAL OP TELEGRAPHIC CONSTRUCTION. 

By J. CHRISTIE DOUGLAS. 

The most complete work on this subject ever published in the 
English language. Price, $7.50. 

REPORTS OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION COM- 
MITTEE ON ELECTRICAL STANDARDS. 
Edited by F. Jenkin, Esq. 

Prof F. Jenkia's celebrated Cantor Lectures on Submarine 
Cables' and Submarine Telegraphy are included with the report. 
Price, $3 75. 

MODERN PRACTICE OP ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 
By FRANK L. POPE. 

This is the most useful and popular work on practical telegra- 
phy ever published in this country. The sa'es have been larger 
than of any other work of its class. Price, $2. 

THE GALVANOMETER AND ITS USES. 
By CHARLES H. HASKINS. 
Every person who has occasion to use a galvanometer should 
have this work. Price, $2. 

The works above mentioned, or any other electrical or telegra- 
phic works that can be obtained in New York, will be forwarded 
by mail, post-paid, on receipt of price. Orders and remittances 
should be addressed to 

J. N. ASHLEY, 

P, 0. Box 5503. Publisher of ' ' The Teles^aphei, " 

20 C0RTLANDT STREET, NEW YORK. 



ECONOMY, RELIABILITY AND SAFETY 

Are secured by the use of our improved 

AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNALS, 

SEMAPHORE SIGNALS, 

SWITCH AND DRAWBRIDGE SIGNALS. 

We have Patented and Manufacture an 

ELECTRIC BELL 

FOR 

RAILFCAD CROSSINGS 

Superior to anything of the kind heretofore used. 
IT IS LOUDER, 

MORE RELIABLE 

AND ECONOMICAL 

Than any similar apparatus ever offered for sale. 

Our inventions are covered by numerous patents, and the 
entire system is the most reliable and complete of any in this or 
any other country. 

For Pamphlet, containing full description, illustrated, Rail 
road Officers and Managers will please send to 

THE ELECTRIC RAILROAD SIGNAL CO., 



P. O, Box 5503. 



38 VESEY STREET, 

NEW YORK 



T 



UTUAL CONTRIBUTION PLAN OF 
INSURANCE, 

AT ACTUAL COST. 

PROTECTION LIFE INSURANCE CO., 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

Charter perpetual. Capital, $200,000. $100,000 deposited with 
State Treasurer for policy holders' security. 
Plan similar to Telegraphers' Mutual Benefit Association. 

Cost of $1,250 Policy— Age 26 to 40— -First 

Year, $31.65 or less; Second 

Year, and every Year 

thereafter, $23.85. 

Cost of carrying policy, outside of charge for expenses, 
trictly governed by actual losses experienced. 

ASSESSMENTS COLLECTED MONTHLY. 

I reduce admission fee by dividing my commission with 
Telegraphers. 

Send for circular, or apply to 

W. C. LONG, Agent, 

47 WOODBINE PLACE (CAMPBELL PARK), 

Chicago, HI. 



HE BISHOP GUTTA PERCHA WORKS, 
422, 424, 426 EAST 25th ST., N. 7. 




S. BISHOP, Proprietor, 

ONLY MANUFACTURRR OP 

PURE GUTTA PERCHA GOODS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES. 

•!§&■ 

Has also on hand, and makes to order, 

SUBMARINE CABLES, OFFICE CABLES, AND INSULATED 

WIRES OF EVERY VARIETY, 

FOB 

TELEGRAPH, UNDERGROUND AND ELECTRIC USE. 
Fuse Wires, Leading and Connecting Wires foi SUBMARINE 

and MINING PURPOSES. 
Also, a NEW COMPOUND (I loroughly tested) for underground 

and ou -door use. 
Cotton, Linen, Silk and Fibre covered Wires for 

MAGNET AND OFFICE USE, 

of any pattern or style. 

OFFICE WIRES, 

Cotton and Gutta Pen-ba covered, with any number of conductors) 

required. 

Gutta Percha and Cotton covered Wires for HOTEL ANNUN- 

OIATORS, ELECTRIC BELLS and BURGLAR ALARMS. 

Has on hand and makes to order 
SUBMARINE GABLES, INSULATED WIRES, for 

TELEGRAPH AND ELECTRIC USB 

AND FOB 

BZASTING AND MINING PURPOSES, 

In every variety desired. 

As an Insulation for Telegraph Cables and Electric Conductor*, 
Gutta Peeoha has been universally adopted by all scientific and 
practical Electricians and Manufacturers of Telegraph Cables and 
Wires in this country and Europe, and has sustained, with In- 
creasing superiority in the practical test of over twenty-fire 
years' general use. 
The PROPRIETOR will guarantee, to all parties purchasing 

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH CABLES, 

to make and deliver at his Factory any style of Cable, Insulated 
with Gutta Percha, as low as they can import Cable of the same 
style and quality, and in half the time required to import them. 

CABLES OF ONE MILE OR LESS manufactured and de- 
livered at one week's notice. 

ORDERS RECEIVED AT THE FACTORY. 

Messrs. L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DE7 STREET, NEW FORK, 

have been appointed by me GENERAL AGENTS for the sale of 
any Telegraph Cable or Wire manufactured at the Works in New 
York, at Factory Prices, delivered in New York. 

JOHN TH0KNLEY, 503 Chestnut St., Philadelphia 

has been appointed Agent for the sale of any and al 1 goods manu- 
factured by me, at Factory Prices, delivered In New York. 

Any Goods manufactured (except Telegraph Goods) are foi 
sale In New York by 

SARGENT & STUDLEY, 26 Park Place, 
RUBBER CLOTHING CO., 363 Broadway, 
D. HODGMAN & CO., 27 Maiden Lane, 
SHEPARD & DUDLEY, 150 William St 

Address all communications to 

S . B I- S H O P . 

OFFICE AT FACTORY. 



Feb. 3, 1871] 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



H 



ASKINS' GRAVITY BATTERY. 




This improved form of Gravity Battery is meeting with a rapid sale. It has been adopted by the North Western 
Telegraph Company and by several Railroads. 

It is put up as a Reservoir Battery, gives a strong, constant current, requires little attention, and is very economical. 

WESTERN ELECTBIC MANUFACTUEING COMPANY, 

220 3^.1xiz,le Street, 

CHICAGO, ILL., 
S^OLE AGENTS, 

XYTESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING: COMPANY, 
** 220 KINZIE STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



CELEBRATED PRIVATE LINE OUTFIT. 

The COMPLETE OUTFIT includes 

ONE PRIVATE LINE INSTRUMENT, 

ONE CELL BLISS RESERVOIR BATTERY, 

THE NECESSARY CHEMICALS, WIRE FOR 

CONNECTIONS, AND A MANUAL. 




Our Private Line Instrument as now manufactured is a perfect beauty, and is fit for a parlor ornament. It will work on a line 
from a few fee/, to ten wiles in length. FWJUMlMuJl 

In ordering, give the length of the line, so that the resistance of the magnets may be richtlv nronortioned^^^ 
The BLISS RESERVOIR BATTERY is not excelled for force, constancy and economy. 

Private Line Outfit, complete $10 00 

" " Instrument 800 

Bliss Reservoir Battery, per cell .............. .'. 200 

Twenty per cent, discount is allowed when Cash accompanies the Order. 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO., 

220 K1NZ1E ST., Chicago, JR. 



JUST OUT. 

NEW AND ENLARGED EDITION OF 

SMITH'S 

MANUAL OF TELEGRAPHY, 

CONTAINING 

Complete Directions for Self-Instruction in Telegraphy, 
Instructions for Building and Operating 

SHORT LINES OF TELEGRAPH, 

Diagrams showing the manner of connecting wires, batteries 
instruments, &c. 

Descriptions and cuts of all foirns of telegraph instruments 
batteries, &c. 

Cuts, descriptions and prices of the 

BEST LEARNER'S APPARATUS 

AND 

SHORT LINE INSTRUMENTS, 8 

Together with full explanations of everything necessary for the 

AMATEUR TELEGRAPHER 

To know. 

Every operator and every student of telegraphy should have osm 

It is the 

MOST COMPLETE, PRACTICAL 

And easily understood explanation of the 

MORSE TELEGRAPH 

AND ITS APPARATUS 
EYER PUBLISHED. 

Price .30 Cents. 

Sent post paid upon receipt of price. 

L. G. TILLOTSON & CO., 

8 DEY STREET, NEW YOEK. 
54 SOUTH FOURTH STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 
CINCINNATI AGENCY. 

H. D. ROGERS & CO., 

22 WEST FOURTH STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO DEPOT 
FOE 

L.e. TILLOTSON &€0'S 

INSTRUMENTS. 



New Giant Sounders, 

Learners' Instruments, 
Keys, Switches, ^Batteries, 

Line Materials, etc. 

C. O. D. Orders filled for all points on this coast. 
Address, 

California Electrical Association, 

122 Market St., 

SAN FRANCISCO 



VI 



THE TELEGRAPHER 



[Feb. 3, 1817. 



TT^ESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 

220 IKliiZLZie Street, Oliicago, 111., 

Manufactureri of GRAY'S AUTOMATIC PRINTER and of PRINTING TELEGRAPH LINE MATERIALS and EQUIPMENTS. 




HARLES T. CHESTER, 

MANUFACTURER OP 

TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 

104 Centre Street, New York. 



BATTERIES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

For Telegraph and Electro-Plating purposes. 

BEST ENGLISH AND AMERICAN TELEGRAPH WIRE, 

LINE TOOLS, INSULATORS, 

Etc., Etc. 

DIALS and PRINTING INSTRUMENTS 

For Private and Municipal Lines. 



THE MAGAZINE BATTERY. 



PRICES AND CIRCULARS FURNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 



w 



TESTERN ELECTRIC 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
220 KINZIE STREET, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 







PATENT LEGLESS KEY. 

All the connections in this Key are on the top of the table. 
It is not equalled for 

BEAUTY OF DESIGN, 

PERFECTION OF FINISH, 

AND 

COMPLETENESS IN ALL ITS PAETS. 

It is convenient and durable. 

WESTERN ELECTRIC MTG CO. 
TAMES L. NORRIS, 

SOLICITOR OF 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENTS, 

N. E. corner Seventh and F Streets, 
Opposite Patent Office, 

Washington, D. C. 
Refers to Frank L. Pope, New York. 



IMPROVED PRINTING AND DIAL 
TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENT 

FOR 

PRIVATE AND SHORT LINES. 

Having for several years been engaged in the manufacture 
of PRINTING AND DIAL TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS 
for PRIVATE AND SHORT LINES, we have brought them 
to a high state of perfection. 

Many improvements in these instruments have been made and 
patented during the last few years, which have added largely to 
their simplicity, reliability and value. 

These instruments can be operated by any person of ordinary 
intelligence, with a few minutes' instruction, and are not liable 
to get out of order. 

They have been extensively introduced in this city and else- 
where, and complete satisfaction is guaranteed to purchasers. 

This company is also engaged in the construction of 

PRIVATE TELEGRAPH LINES, 

which are put up in the best and most substantial manner, and 
upon very reasonable terms. 

Favorable arrangements will be made with line construc- 
tors, telegraph employes, etc., for the introduction of these in- 
struments. 

For further particulars, terms, etc., apply to 

MERCHANTS' MANUFACTURING AND 
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, 

40 Broad Street, New Yorfc. 




Excelling the Leclanche for all Open Circuit purposes. 



A LINE OF CHEAP MORSE APPARATUS. 

SOUNDERS $3 00 

>V. U. KEY, Snapping Connections 2 50 

NEW STYLE OF REGISTER (the European), RELAYS, 

BELL MAGNETS, and every description of Telegraph 

Goods. 
SINGLE STROKE CALL BELLS 2 50 



HOTEL ANNUNCIATORS. 



CHESTER'S PATENT 

Non-interference Street Signal Box, 

FOR FIRE ALARM TELEGRAPHS, 

AND 

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CONG STRIKERS, 

; For Railway Signals and Fire Alarm purposes. 



SOLE AGENT OF THE 



L 



EWIS' TELEGRAPH MANUAL. 



A few copies of the last edition of 

THE TELEGRAPHIC MANUAL, 

by Mr. Walter O. Lewis, remaining, may be had of The 
Telegrapher, 20 Cortlandt street, at fifteen cents each. Will be 
orwarded by mail post paid on receipt of price. 



WILSON ELECTRIC GAS LIGHTING COMPANI. 

CHESTER'S IMPROVED CAUTERIZING BATTERY, 
For Physician's Use. 

ELECTRO-PLATERS' BATTERIES 

AND 

SUPPLIES OF EVERT DESCRIPTION. 



A LIBERAL DISCOUNT TO THE TRADE 



pW° Send for Catalogue and Price List. 
P. O. Box 2766. 104 CENTRE STREET. 



16 1952 



■■■■■■■i 



Date Due 



Lib-26-67 



TK 

.T2-67 

v.12-13, 

I876- 

1877 



708 



SIGN this card and present it with book 
at the CIRCULATION DESK. 



MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF 
TECHNOLOGY LIBRARIES 



HUMANITIES LIBRARY